National Governments

Taxonomy Term List

SCALA Argentina

Argentina is considered a high-income economy with a GDP of US$600 billion in 2016 and a population of over 44 million. In the last decades, the country has experienced marked growth in its agriculture and food sectors, accounting to 54 percent of its land use, and playing a strategic role in the socio-economic development of the country, with 54 percent of employment. Agriculture and animal husbandry and fragile ecosystems are also especially vulnerable to the intensification of extreme climate events, affecting the production and supply of food on a national and global scale. The country is considered a top emitter for agriculture, forestry and other land use sectors, contributing to 2.1 percent of the global emissions, and with domestic emissions made up of livestock (21.6 percent); agriculture (5.8 percent) and land-use change and forestry (9.8 percent). 

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POINT (-65.039062495536 -36.796089507293)
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Argentina’s agriculture is highly innovative and has much to offer in terms of win-win climate actions. It has great potential to scale up actions and production processes that will simultaneously cut mitigate emissions and enhance resilience to improve productivity. Argentina is one of the 100 countries being supported by UNDP’s Climate Promise to enhance their NDCs. The country is also part of FAO’s Sub-Regional Project on "Low Emission Livestock, a contribution to the Sustainable Development of the Sector in South America, and many other projects related to climate management.

The government of Argentina considers the SCALA programme as strong support for the revision of its NAP in the agricultural sector, and to carry out actions that allow the implementation and achievement of the commitments established in the country’s NDC. The programme will leverage participatory methods to address Argentina’s institutional and financial barriers, which allow for a transformative shift in the agriculture and land use sectors. Moreover, to engage and mobilize the private sector to increase its investments in climate action. With the SCALA programme supporting Argentina over the next five years, UNDP and FAO will strive to foster a more inclusive multi-stakeholder process that eventually meets the needs of smallholder farmers, rural communities, women, and youth, who are the most vulnerable to climate change.

 

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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action
Barriers: 

Argentina faces different types of barriers in achieving its adaptation and mitigation goals. There is a lack of planning for sustainable management of native forests `and agri-food systems. There are gaps in the articulation between managing bodies/ministries, as well as inefficient bureaucratic financing channels and there are difficulties for producers to access financing. The objective of the NAP in Argentina is to carry out the process in a participatory manner across managing bodies and ministries. The process requires economic efforts to ensure the full participation of all representatives and to support them in parallel processes for formulating provincial plans.   

Country Climate Plans: 

In 2016, Argentina submitted its nationally determined contribution (NDC) that identified several agriculture-related priorities. Argentina has prioritized the development of adaptative capacities and the promotion of agriculture’s strategic role as a solution to climate change. In 2020, the country signed the new United Nations Strategic Cooperation Framework (2021-2025) and confirmed its interest to push forward the agenda that seeks to enhance ambition and catalyze action for land-use and agriculture. Argentina submitted its second NDC in December 2020, ratifying a more ambitious commitment to the Paris Agreement and providing a specific and broader role to adaptation, with the national goal of decreasing 19 percent of its total GHG emissions by 2030. The country has committed to elaborate its Long-Term Climate Strategy by the end of 2021.

The key priorities communicated for the agriculture and land-use sector focus mainly on prioritization of adaptation, strengthening the role of agribusiness as a source of solutions to climate change, integrating agro-industrial production and encouraging the development of process and product technologies. To support the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process, Argentina is implementing the Readiness Project for the NAP Process, financed by the Green Climate Fund and implemented by UNDP.

Along with these actions, the country aims to strengths the implementation of Minimum Budgets for the Environmental Protection of Native Forests, as well as achieve a substantial reduction in the deforestation rate. To support this goal the country implements the National Forest Management Plan with Integrated Livestock (MBGI), the Forest Watershed Plans and Comprehensive Community Plans (PIC), and the national forest extension system and the Deforestation Early Warning System (SAT). By 2030, the country also expects to deepen the development of fire, flood, and drought prevention measures - of great importance for the agricultural, livestock and forestry sectors.

SCALA Costa Rica

Costa Rica is in Central America and has a varied topography that includes coastal plains separated by rugged mountains, including over 100 volcanic cones and inhabits around 5 percent of the planet’s biodiversity. Costa Rica is among global leaders in responding to climate change, with a long history of environmental protection, sustainable development, and action on climate change mitigation. Costa Rica’s vulnerability to extreme climate events and natural hazards is a result of the presence of populations in areas prone to volcanic eruptions and unstable lands, degraded by wide-spread cattle ranching, or in poorly planned settlements prone to landslides and flooding. A total of 36 percent of Costa Rica’s land use is attributed to agriculture, and it accounts for 14 percent of the country’s employment. 

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The SCALA programme can contribute to strengthening market access for products developed through low-carbon value chains to help increase the capital flow to communities (at the farm level) that adopt technologies and help contribute to scaling up climate action. The SCALA programme will support Costa Rica in transforming how the agriculture and land use sectors operate and incorporating adaptation and mitigation measures. In addition to the support on soil management practices, SCALA in Cosa Rica will support the resilience of family farmers to cope with pathogens, so they have the resources to invest in sustainable low-carbon practices. The country is currently developing a road map for its National Adaptation Plan and aims to strengthen conservation initiatives and expand its environmental services payments program to include ecosystem-based adaptation. Costa Rica continues to promote renewable energies, stronger environmental management practices through agroforestry systems and watershed management, as well as tools for municipal-level land use planning to reduce the long-term vulnerabilities of its population and enhance its food security.

 

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Costa Rica prioritizes transformative climate practices in its agri-food chains

22 October 2021 - To learn more about how Costa Rica is scaling up its climate ambition in land use and agriculture to meet the targets of its NDC and related climate strategies, the SCALA programme sat down with the Minister of Agriculture and Livestock, Mr. Renato Alvarado to unpack the opportunities and challenges in this process as part of a new interview series.

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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action
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Costa Rica has developed policies and prioritized implementing transformative action in value chains, however, knowledge remains a key barrier because transformative change requires the adoption of new technologies. A second barrier experienced in Costa Rica is the availability of financing mechanisms that reduce risks for different actors, including investors, in the value chain. Lastly, there is a need to strengthen the institutional frameworks that oversee these processes, mainly at the early stages. The COVID-19 pandemic was a huge challenge – like for many countries, but Costa Rica managed to keep the value chains in operation and reported growth in agricultural exports, while still maintaining adequate levels of supply to the national market during these challenging times. The pandemic exposed how valuable the agriculture sectors are and demonstrated the resilience of agricultural producers.

Country Climate Plans: 

Costa Rica’s National Climate Change Adaptation Policy (2018-2030), states the priorities with respect to agricultural sustainable production, namely the 1) promotion of adaptation based on ecosystems outside the State's natural heritage, through the conservation of biodiversity in biological corridors, private reserves and farms under forest regime 2) promotion of water security in the face of climate change, through the protection and monitoring of sources and proper management of hydrological basins. The National Development Plan (2019-2022) reaffirmed the ambitious goal to promote a carbon neutral economy by 2021 and laid out strategies to promote renewable energy, reduce GHG emissions, and consider adaptation initiatives.  

In 2016, Costa Rica submitted its first NDC. Costa Rica’s National Climate Change Adaptation Policy (2018-2030), as well as the National Decarbonization Plan (2018-2050) and the NAMA coffee, NAMA livestock, NAMA sugarcane and NAMA Musaceae (banana), reflect some of the country’s key agri-food chains, which are livestock, coffee, rice, Musaceae and cane sugar. The country’s NDC aims to consolidate an agricultural model that is based on sound approaches in existing policies and strategies. To date, the country has developed a National Low Carbon Livestock Strategy, a National Low-emission Coffee Strategy, and the Low Carbon Banana Strategy, which focus on reducing risks and vulnerabilities in these value chains.

SCALA Cote D'Ivoire

Côte d’Ivoire is located in West Africa along the Gulf of Guinea with the Atlantic running along its southern coast. As one of the world’s top exporters of cocoa, palm oil, banana and cashews and with two-third of the actively working population is percent employed by the agriculture sectors, Côte d’Ivoire is vulnerable to variations in weather and climate, as well as external shocks in its export trade. Côte d’Ivoire has the second largest economy in West Africa. High rainfall in the south fuels a fertile agricultural industry, which contributes to 27 percent of country’s GDP. A heavy economic reliance on agriculture, in addition to continued environmental degradation, rising temperature, prolonged dry season and deforestation all contribute to the country’s vulnerability to climate change. In addition, agriculture contributes 12 percent of total GHG emissions with livestock contributing the largest proportion (63 percent). 

 

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POINT (-5.3118896546725 8.0592309607409)
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To support the country in implementing these plans, the SCALA programme partnered with Côte d'Ivoire for the next four years. The SCALA programme will help Côte d'Ivoire accelerate the implementation of its NAP and pursue action to achieve the commitments outlined in its forthcoming NDC. The programme will work with government stakeholders to overcome barriers at the institutional, technical, and financial levels to support a transformative shift in the agriculture and land use sectors. Through the SCALA programme, FAO and UNDP will strive to create an inclusive multi-stakeholder process between institutions and partners in Côte d'Ivoire that will help fill gaps, improve capacities and reach the country’s climate targets.

 

Project Status: 
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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action
Barriers: 

Côte d'Ivoire has made considerable efforts to mainstream adaptation and mitigation priorities into its national development plans. However, there are different barriers at the institutional level impeding the achievement of adaptation goals, such as the absence of regulations governing the coordination of actions to combat climate change, and the lack of cooperation between the national and sub- national levels. As for mitigation goals, the absence of an intersectoral coordination mechanisms for the NDCs and the lack of a measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) framework are considered the main barriers. Regarding technical resources and knowledge, the limited availability of adequate and evidence-based information, inconsistency of existing data and insufficient research conducted on emission factors are considered as important constraints. Moreover, financial barriers are also viewed as considerable obstacles to achieve climate targets. For instance, the unavailability of specific resource mobilization strategy for climate change adaptation, the insufficient level of financial resources mobilized for mitigation, both internally and externally, and difficulties in accessing climate finance from external mechanisms. Lastly, there is low awareness of the private sector in climate risk assessments and investments in adaptation measures.

 

Country Climate Plans: 

Côte d’Ivoire ratified the Paris Agreement in 2016 and submitted their first NDC the same year. The NDC intends to reconcile development and reduction of GHG emissions. Due to the country’s vulnerability to climate change impacts, especially in the key agricultural exports sector, adaptation is also a priority.

The revision of the NDC is ongoing, and the NAP process has been underway in Côte d’Ivoire since 2015. The adaptation planning is crucial in 11 identified priority sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change, including agriculture, fisheries, forestry, land use and gender as a cross-cutting theme. The second generation National Agricultural Investment Program 2017-2025 aims to increase added value of agricultural products; strengthen agricultural production systems that are respectful of the environment; and promote inclusive growth.

Along with the ongoing NDC submission, Côte d'Ivoire has several climate plans and policies in place, such as the National Strategy for Climate-Smart Agriculture 2018-25, National Strategic Plan for the Development of Livestock, Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014-20 and National Strategy for Forest Conservation, Rehabilitation and Extension, to build resilience and reduce GHG across key sectors.

 

SCALA Egypt

The Arab Republic of Egypt is a developing country in Northern Africa. This terrain consists of a vast desert plateau that has a fresh water renewable resource - the River Nile and its Nile Valley and Delta. Most of Egypt’s population and infrastructure are concentrated in the Nile Delta and along the Mediterranean coast, which makes the country vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise, particularly inundation and saltwater intrusion. About 15 percent of the most fertile arable land in the Nile Delta is already negatively affected by sea level rise and saltwater intrusion. With this negative impact, climate change studies predict a reduction in productivity of two major crops in Egypt - wheat and maize – by 15 percent and 19 percent, respectively, by 2050. Nevertheless, agriculture is the biggest employer involving over 31.2 percent of the total population.  The agriculture sector contributed 14 percent to the GDP in 2009 and contributes 10 percent of the country's total GHG emissions. 

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POINT (29.102783190725 26.326248946066)
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The Ministry of Environment and the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency has officially approved and cleared the implementation the SCALA programme in Egypt. A background desk review of relevant climate change plans and documents has been undertaken, as well as a baseline report has been produced. This will be further informed by the stocktaking and climate action review exercise for the identification and validation of climate actions with transformative potential in the AFOLU sectors.

Through initial consultations with the Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Agriculture & Land Reclamation, it has been recommended that the SCALA programme supports the NAP development process under the recently launched GCF-NAP Readiness project. SCALA deliverables therefore will be designed to serve as inputs to the NAP project through which Egypt’s overall NAP will be developed. Contributions will mostly be towards evidence generation through climate risk and vulnerability assessments, innovative climate research on water management and irrigation adaption measures, capacity needs assessment reports on disaster risk reduction and early warning mechanisms in AFOLU sectors, and environmental impact assessments of land use plans.

By supporting the preparation of National Adaption Plan Framework, which will target to address the mitigation and adaptation barriers, the SCALA programme in Egypt will contribute to the country’s long-term goal of decreasing climate vulnerability and building climate resilience of AFOLU sectors. By establishing a framework for improving institutional and technical capacity for climate change adaptation planning it will help the country enhance climate action needed by 2030. The programme will support assessments of climate risks and vulnerabilities, determining climate change mitigation and adaptation priorities, and integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation into national and sectoral planning and budgeting.

 

Project Status: 
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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action
Barriers: 

The main barriers towards implementation of mitigation and adaptation measures and progress in the agriculture, forests, and other land use (AFOLU) sectors are in institutional and technical capacity to undertake evidence generation through climate risk vulnerability assessments. Most policymakers and technical experts in the Ministries still require enhanced understanding of climate change impacts and the technical skills necessary to craft and implement appropriate CCA integration and interventions. There are institutional barriers related to the functioning of the Measuring, Reporting, and Verifying (MRV) systems on mitigation and adaptation measures and progress in the AFOLU sectors. Egypt plans to build institutional coordination and capacity on climate risks management and to undertake climate adaptation planning, as well as overcome the barrier of insufficient financial resources and budget allocations dedicated to adaptation actions.

Already, the government of Egypt has embarked on preparing a NAP framework; a process that involves assessing and addressing institutional and technical capacity gaps for adaptation planning and management of adaptation actions, national level climate risks and vulnerability assessments and identification of sectoral adaptation priorities, and mapping of mid- and long-term climate change adaptation financing options. 

Country Climate Plans: 

In 2011, a National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction was released. This strategy lays out the path to overcome the challenges raised by climate change and estimates the investment required to reach its strategic goals. Egypt ratified the Paris Agreement in June 2017 and submitted their nationally determined contribution (NDC), which focuses on the sustainability of agriculture, the environment, water resources, energy, and land management as priority areas.  

Egypt’s NDC pledges to reduce its GHG emissions; particularly reducing CO2 emissions by 20 percent from the baseline emissions level of 250MtCO2 emissions by 2030. Each sector of the economy has set mitigation targets; particularly for the agriculture, forest, and other land-use sectors, the mitigation targets include recycling agricultural waste and manure and the implementation of a national MRV system. Additionally, the NDC outlines Adaptation Action Packages with specific adaptation goals for the most vulnerable sectors, including agriculture. Such adaptation actions include building an effective institutional system to manage climate change associated crises and disasters at the national level.

UNDP office in Egypt is implementing a Green Climate Fund (GCF)-financed National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Readiness project aiming to formulate and advance Egypt’s National Adaptation Plans Process. This NAP process targets to build/enhance climate resilience in all the sectors of the economy by improving institutional and technical capacity for climate change adaptation (CCA) planning, examining climate risks, determining CCA priorities, integrating CCA into national and sectoral planning and budgeting, and increasing investment in adaptation actions. This NAP process also targets to identify private sector actors with potential to invest in climate change actions. Already there is a large and fast-growing small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) sector and a large domestic market.

SCALA Ethiopia

Ethiopia is a landlocked country in Northeast Africa and has a population of over 112 million people. Its agriculture sector plays a major role in the national economy, contributing to 34.5 percent of GDP in 2020. Smallholder farming accounts for approximately 95 percent of agricultural production and 85 percent of total employment. In Ethiopia, agriculture and land-use are high GHG emitting sectors with around 80 percent of domestic emissions. Ethiopia’s agriculture sector is extremely vulnerable to climate change due to its high dependence on natural resources, and relatively low adaptive capacity – especially in rural areas – to deal with frequently experienced extreme events and longer-term variability, including droughts and floods, rainfall variability and pest invasions.

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POINT (39.649658188836 8.0205605250015)
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The Government of Ethiopia aims to proactively pursue further integration of climate change adaptation in its development policies and strategies, including macroeconomic and sectoral policies at regional and local levels. In support of this target, the SCALA programme will leverage participatory methods to address Ethiopia’s institutional and financial barriers to mainstream climate change at all administrative levels, to allow for a transformative shift in their agriculture and land use sectors. Building on the capacity gaps identified in scoping exercises, the programme will seek to enhance institutional capacities of the country to support the management of climate budget tagging systems, to undertake climate finance and resource mobilization, and to engage and mobilize the private sector to increase its investments in climate action. It also intends to develop stronger knowledge and information sharing platforms for bridging the gap between national, regional and woreda level governance mechanisms. Additionally, the implementation of SCALA programme will support the establishment of enabling environment and de-risking instruments to engage and incentivize private sector investments in climate actions.

The expectation of undertaking such activities is that they will help the country accelerate its NDC and NAP implementation. With the SCALA programme supporting Ethiopia over the next five years, UNDP and FAO will strive to foster a more inclusive, multi-stakeholder process that meets the needs of smallholder farmers, rural communities, women, and youth, who are the most vulnerable to climate change.

 

Project Status: 
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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action
Barriers: 

Whilst Ethiopia has made strides in mainstreaming adaptation and mitigation priorities into its national agriculture development plans and projects, one of the main barriers to achieving adaptation and mitigation goals remains the limited understanding and technical capacity for implementing them at the local level.  It was identified in the CRGE Strategy progress report that there is limited capacity at the local level to carry out climate risk and vulnerability assessments, gender analysis and assessments, and cost benefit analyses for prioritising adaptation and mitigation options.

Given SCALA’s programme objectives to achieve systems-level transformative change, the programme in consultation with Ethiopia’s Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance, and its Environment, Forest and Climate Change Commission (EFCCC), has identified livelihood-centred agro-ecological transitions as a priority. Preliminary work under SCALA has also identified entry points for catalysing transformative climate action in the agriculture and land use sector within selected agro-ecological zones (AEZ). For example, with the need for more gender-responsive climate risk analyses, the SCALA programme plans to carry out a gender analysis of selected value chains in vulnerable AEZs. This will include an appraisal of the cost and benefits of value chain-based interventions to spur inclusive climate action. Establishing a strong evidence base that is also rooted in local contexts would then set the foundation for designing a transformative climate action implementation plan at local levels, with a gender and social inclusion lens.

Country Climate Plans: 

The Government of Ethiopia submitted its nationally determined contribution (NDC) to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2016, and formally submitted an updated NDC in July 2021. The updated NDC builds on, and is in line with, the country’s development goals as laid out in its Growth and Transformation Plan II, its Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) Strategy, the emerging Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy, the Green Legacy Initiative, and Ethiopia’s 10-year Development Plan. The bulk of Ethiopia’s NDC adaptation commitments are focused on the agriculture and land use sectors, with priority areas including livestock diversification, drought-resistant animal breeding, rangeland management, crop, and livestock insurance. Ethiopia formulated its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) in 2017, along with a NAP Implementation Roadmap that further categorized the short-term adaptation priorities (such as capacity building, strengthening the enabling environment and promoting research), as well as long-term sector-specific priorities.

In its final National Adaptation Plan (NAP-ETH, 2019), Ethiopia prioritized adaptation in the sectors considered most vulnerable to climate change, namely: agriculture, forestry, health, transport, energy, industry, water and urban. Within these sectors, 18 adaptation options are identified for implementation at all administrative levels, recognizing the considerable diversity in context and vulnerability across Ethiopia’s regions and social groups. Ethiopia is working to integrate climate information into planning and decision-making for development interventions, and prioritizing climate resilience across policies to improve the adaptive capacity at national/federal, regional and Woreda levels. The plan is guided by the principles of participation, coherent interventions, stakeholder empowerment, gender sensitivity, equitable implementation, and partnership, especially with the private sector.

SCALA Senegal

Located in West Africa, Senegal has a steadily growing economy over recent years. However, poverty in Senegal is still prevalent in rural areas, where roughly 60 percent of the population resides. The other 40 percent of the population resides in urban areas, where the majority live in rapidly growing urban suburbs. Low agricultural production, limited capacity of the economy to create sustainable jobs, and inadequate resource allocation for social services contribute to poverty. While the agriculture, livestock and fishery sectors are contributing to food and nutrition security and representing 60 percent of the Senegalese rural labor force, these sectors are vulnerable to several climate-related impacts, such as drought, locust invasion, flooding, sea-level rise, coastal erosion and related health epidemics, as well as bush fires.

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POINT (-15.224304203678 14.897604348482)
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Senegal has a strong motivation to enhance its climate strategies and create more sustainable production patterns and food systems. The country plans to achieve its climate objectives in terms of land use and agriculture through the transformation of agri-food systems. The systemic approach adopted by the SCALA programme with all stakeholders constitutes an innovative approach to overcome obstacles and help define actionable priorities. Through fostering stakeholder commitments, to build institutional, financial and technical capacities and foster transformation actions such as agroecology, improving crop varieties, agroforestry and the importance of operationalizing the concept of agripreneur, the SCALA programme will further support the government of Senegal in accessing sustainable solutions, by considering cross-cutting issues and promoting synergies between ongoing initiatives.

 

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News and Updates: 
Strengthening transformative approaches in Senegal’s climate action plans

6 November 2021 - The programme was officially launched during a two-day inception workshop in September 2021, where key stakeholders discussed SCALA’s activities and objectives to be implemented over the next four years. The discussion centered on the agroecological solutions (such as composting), improving crop varieties, agroforestry and the importance of operationalizing the concept of “agripreneur”. To learn more about the national priorities discussed, the SCALA programme sat down with two technical advisers from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Equipment, Mr. Boubacar Drame and Mr. Younoussa Mballo, to unpack the opportunities and objectives of the programme.

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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action
Barriers: 

The main barriers towards the implementation of mitigation and adaptation measures on an institutional level are the low level of integrating NDC and NAP priorities in the planning and budgeting process and the lack of coordination and capacity in intersectoral planning. On a technical level, these sectors are facing major challenges, such as the availability of data and information to actors and the need to strengthen the information system measures for the effective monitoring and evaluation of transformative climate mitigation and adaptation actions. Senegal can achieve its goals to reduce GHG emissions and integrate adaptation and mitigation priorities with international community support and sustainable funding. The country can also benefit from transferring environmentally friendly technologies and strengthening institutional and human capacities in its climate change agenda.

Country Climate Plans: 

Senegal developed a National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2006 and submitted an INDC in 2015, which outlined the country’s plans for mitigation and adaptation. The NDC was recently revised and submitted ahead of COP26 in 2021, while sectoral NAPs are currently under development. The Plan for an Emerging Senegal (Plan Sénégal Emergent) reflects the strong political will for development based on more sustainable production patterns and food systems. Since 2019, various actors involved in agroecology in Senegal have come together under the DyTAES (Dynamique pour une Transition AgroEcologique au Sénégal) framework to contribute to the reflections of the Senegalese government to build an agroecological transition policy.

In Senegal, the agriculture sector represents 36 percent of its GHG emissions followed by land use change and forestry (22 percent). As communicated in the NDC, the emissions from the agriculture sector will increase gradually and steadily, until 2030. Henceforth, to reduce emissions, Senegal will first create synergies between local community stakeholders and the private sector to reinforce acquired knowledge and build on good practices in terms of mitigation and adaptation to scale up action.

Strongly threatened by climate change, Senegal aims to enhance adaptation and mitigation measures in the agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry sectors.  Particularly in the crop production sector, the mitigation priorities are focused on the Intensive Rice Cultivation System, composting and assisted natural regeneration. Regarding adaptation priorities, the country will focus on vulnerable ecosystems and will work with vulnerable populations to increase their resilience to climate change impacts. Senegal will concentrate on promoting agriculture-livestock-agroforestry production systems, sustainable land management, use of adapted varieties, agriculture insurance, generic improve of species and animal health, promote sustainable aquaculture and restoration of mangroves field.

SCALA Uganda

Uganda experiences the effects of climate change in the form of increased temperatures, frequent disease outbreaks and insect infestations, disrupted rainfall patterns, and frequent floods and droughts. While Uganda has progressively undergone social and economic growth and transformation, consequently reducing its poverty rate by 23 percent over the last two decades, sustained gains will require continued investments in agriculture, and the inclusive participation in the economic growth of women as well the population reported poor in 2019. With 81 percent of the population engaged in rain-fed subsistence farming for food and cash income, the country’s reliance on rain-fed agriculture remains a risk to economic growth, income of farmers, as well as export earnings. Agriculture contributes up to 40 percent of Uganda’s total GDP and over 90 percent of the country’s foreign exchange earnings. The agriculture sector contributes to 27 percent of emissions, followed by the land-use and forestry sector with approximately 60 percent of emissions.

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Coordinates: 
POINT (33.115539537662 1.5134964330573)
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With the support of the SCALA programme, Uganda is moving towards the implementation of its agriculture and land use transformative priorities in its NAP and updated NDC. The country aims to further mainstream gender-responsiveness in the implementation of both the agriculture NAP and the updated NDC, through multi-stakeholder engagement in the cattle corridor. According to the discussion held during the inception workshop and the orientation of the theory of change, the SCALA programme supports the integration of climate resilience and adaptation information into the agricultural extension system especially at the local government levels. SCALA also supports the government to promote crop varieties and livestock breeds that are better adapted to the production practices and weather variability in the cattle corridor. To address challenges associated with rain-fed agriculture, and expected variability in rainfall, SCALA can help Uganda develop an irrigation policy to ensure sustainable access to water and its efficient use for enhanced crop production and profitability for smallholder farmers. The programme generally focuses on strengthening the sub-national-to-national linkages during planning, implementation and monitoring processes of adaptation and mitigation actions, with an emphasis on promoting private sector investment in climate-resilient agriculture in the cattle corridor. 

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Uganda identifies barriers, solutions, and investment opportunities for gender-responsive agri-food value chains in the cattle corridor

26 October 2021 - The SCALA team sat down with Mr. John Chrysostom Birantana, Senior Principal Policy Analyst at the Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries to understand the challenges related to scaling up both climate change adaptation and mitigation in the cattle corridor landscape, and how the country plans to overcome those barriers to achieve its ambitious climate agenda.

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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action
Barriers: 

Uganda experiences different types of barriers in achieving its agriculture climate goals mainly in the cattle corridor and the agriculture and land use sectors. Smallholder farmers and particularly women, youth and poorer households are facing challenges to implement climate adaptation and mitigation measures such as erratic food prices, limited knowledge and skills for climate smart agriculture, and lack in transportation and processing infrastructure. Moreover, limited agricultural insurance schemes, inadequate access to finance and limited access and control of land and other production resources makes it hard for them to invest in climate action plans. The limited integration and coordination mechanisms among relevant actors and policy gap related to food quality and safety are the main challenges faced at a governance level.

Country Climate Plans: 

Uganda was part of the FAO and UNDP supported Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP-Ag) Programme from 2015-2020, and developed a gender-responsive National Adaptation Plan (NAP) for the agriculture sector and its monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework which now requires support for implementation. Uganda has undertaken steps to implement the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and increase its ambition. The country developed its latest NDC through inclusive and participatory processes and aligned the NDC with its climate-resilient, long-term emission strategy. Most significantly is Uganda’s formulation of the National Climate Change Act 2021 to give the force of law to the Paris Agreement.

Based on the first and updated interim NDC, Uganda continues to prioritize adaptation as the first response to climate change and aims to strengthen mitigation actions, starting with the expansion of extension services and climate-related information. The country is committed to working on reducing climate change vulnerability and addressing climate actions in several key economic sectors including energy, waste, and industrial processes and product use (IPPU). As well the agriculture and livestock, forestry, sustainable land management (SLM), and sustainable natural resources management (mainly wetlands and natural forests restoration, open water bodies protection), are considered as the country’s greatest source of emissions. The country will scale up to increase resilience and adaptability at the community level and leverage synergies with the county’s land-based mitigation goals.

Supporting Chad to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

The Republic of Chad is located in north-central Africa and is dominated by the Saharan desert, covering half of its 1,284,634 km2. The Sahelian ecological zone runs through the center of the country, and is characterized by poor soils and scrubland. In the south, the wetter Sudanian savanna zone is dominated by forest and wooded savannah. The country’s unique position within the Middle Africa region aligns it with both the Congo Basin and the Sahel (as a member of both the Central African Forests Commission and the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel). Landlocked, the country is home to about 15.4 million people (2018 estimate), with only 28 percent of the population lives in urban areas.

According to the IPCC, Chad is projected to experience a moderate increase in temperature of between 0.6 and 1.3 Celsius (under a medium warming scenario) by 2023 and 1 to 2.5 Celsius of warming expected by 2050. It is expected that the number of “hot” days and nights will increase, while there will be a decrease in the number of “cold” days and nights. With respect to precipitation changes, model simulations for the Sahel remain widely divergent; some models estimate that mean annual precipitation could decrease by up to 28 percent, while others suggest that it could increase by up to 29 percent by the 2090s. A significant increase in extreme rainfall events (greater than 50 mm in the maximum five-day precipitation) has also been projected—a change that could increase runoff and flooding conditions.

In September 2015, Chad submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC.  In order to provide a better living environment for Chadians, the government has drawn up "Vision 2030, the Chad we want," which is broken down into three national development plans. The first, covering the period 2017-2021. Chad, through its commitment, will pursue efforts to reduce social inequalities and improve the wellbeing of populations, protect the environment and economic diversification. In response to these expected climate change impacts, the United Nations Development Programme is working with the Government of Chad to implement The Chad National Adaptation Plan Advancement Project is intended to integrate climate change adaptation into medium- and long-term planning and budgeting of climate-sensitive sectors. Chad’s NAP will be anchored in the Chadian Vision 2030 and contribute to the effective integration of adaptation. It incorporates priorities including new productive capabilities and opportunities for the creation of decent work, the development of human capital, the fight against desertification, environmental protection, and adaptation to climate change and improved governance. Under the first component in the NAP, it includes the development of integrated information systems and a climate and socioeconomic database, the project will support planning and decision-making based on scientific evidence. As a result, Chad will be endowed with a national framework able to produce forecasts and assess the vulnerability of production systems to the adverse effects of climate change.  In addition, Chad is receiving support from UN Environment to access funding from the Green Climate Fund on adaptation planning.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Supported the NAP regional workshop 

 

In 2014, Chad attended the NAP-GSP Francophone Africa Regional Training Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to share best practices from countries in the region. Key stakeholders from Chad identified six barriers for implementing the NAP during the project-planning meeting held on 26 May 2017 in N'Djamena.

 

 

Supported the formulation of a Roadmap 

 
In Chad, a basic need for analysis was identified, the NAP GSP supported Chad carry out the preparations for a road map for conducting the NAP process.
 

 

Helped build capacity for accessing climate financing for launch of NAP

 

 

The government of Chad launched their NAP project at the end of 2019. The NAP project is implemented by the Ministry of the Environment and Fisheries in Chad and is funded through the Global Environment Facility LDC Fund. It was developed with the support of the NAP-GSP.

 

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Vers une atténuation et une acclimatation du Tchad aux effets du changement climatique

Le Projet Plan National d’Adaptation aux Changements Climatiques du PNUD TCHAD couvre désormais toutes ses zones d’intervention

Le Plan National d’Adaptation au changement climatique (PNA) opérationnel dans la zone méridionale - February 2020 - Permettez-moi de remercier l’équipe du PNA pour avoir lancer le projet dans la zone soudanienne et de proposer cette formation sur le changement climatique. Pendant longtemps, on a pensé que le changement climatique est une affaire des autres et qu’on ne peut pas être touché. On s’est rendu compte maintenant que le changement climatique est un phénomène réel qui affecte tout le monde.

Lancement du « Plan National d’Adaptation aux changements climatiques » - Octobre 2019 - Le PNUD et le Ministère de l’Environnement, de l’Eau et de la Pêche, ont lancé officiellement le projet « Plan National d’Adaptation aux changement climatiques » (PNA), ouvrant sa mise en œuvre à l’échelle nationale.

Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
1992
Description: 
Chad signs the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which was later ratified on 30 April 1993
Month-Year: 
2009
Description: 
Chad adopts the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) for Climate Change
Month-Year: 
2015
Description: 
Chad submits its INDC to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
2017
Description: 
Chad ratifies the Paris Agreement
Month-Year: 
2019
Description: 
Chad starts implementing the “Chad National Adaptation Plan” project
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Supporting Burkina Faso to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

Due to its geographical position, Burkina Faso is characterized by a dry tropical climate, which alternates between a short rainy season and a long dry season. Burkina Faso’s climate is prone to strong seasonal and annual variation due to its location in the hinterland and within the confines of the Sahara. Climate change may affect the Sahelian region of Africa through severe variations in rainfall, water shortage and low agricultural yield. This should amplify drought risks and evaporation, and reduce agricultural productivity (a 10% drop in rainfall is expected by 2050). In addition, climate change will probably result in higher temperatures (a 1.4-1.6°C rise is expected by 2050), potentially increasing the risk for forest fires or bushfires.

Since ratifying the UNFCCC in 1993, Burkina Faso qualified for the Adaptation in Africa Programme (AAP) launched by the UNDP with funding from the Japanese government. In October 2008, between the UNDP and Japan and the implementation of the AAP, twenty African countries, including Burkina Faso, were granted funding for their climate variability and change adaptation programmes. Burkina Faso has contextualized the 2030 agenda in its National Economic and Social Development Plan (PNDES), operationalized through 14 sectoral policies and local development plans. The country is focusing on SDG4, SDG8, SDG10, SDG13, SDG 16, and SDG17. Burkina Faso launched its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process to formulate a medium- and long-term climate change adaptation strategy denoted NAPA programming. In September 2014, Burkina Faso submits its Second National Communication to the UNFCCC and one year later, in September 2015, Burkina Faso submitted its Intended National Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC.

Burkina Faso submitted its NAP to the UNFCCC in October 2015. The methodology for formulating a NAP in Burkina Faso includes four steps or 'elements and also took into account the national circumstance of the country when planning these actions. 1) Laying the ground work and addressing gaps, includes assessing available information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, measures taken to address climate change and gaps and needs, at the national and regional levels. 2) The preparatory elements include activities aimed at integrating climate change adaptation into national and sub-national development and sectoral planning, as well as consultation workshops and awareness building. 3) Implementing strategies includes strengthening institutional and regulatory frameworks to support adaptation and training/ coordinating at the sectoral and sub-national levels. 4) Reporting, monitoring and review activities include addressing inefficiencies, incorporating the results of new assessments and emerging science and reflect lessons learned from adaptation efforts.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Supported the Regional NAP workshop

 

In 2014, Burkina Faso attended the NAP-GSP Francophone Africa Regional Training Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to share best practices from countries in the region.

 

 

Supported the methodology for identifying gaps and specific priorities

 

 
NAP-GSP supported Burkina Faso in formulated the methodology to lay the groundwork for addressing gaps in their NAP document. As outlined in the NAP, these activities are designed to identify gaps and omissions in intervention frameworks and address them as necessary, to support the formulation of comprehensive adaptation plans, programmes and policies.
 

 

Supported with the preparation of the initial NAP

 

 

 

In May 2015, NAP GSP supported Burkina Faso with an initial review of the final draft of the NAP document. Burkina Faso submitted the NAP document to the UNFCCC in September later that year.

 

 

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Strengthening national resilience capacities - May 2017 - The objective of this workshop is to strengthen the capacities of actors from ministerial departments and NGOs involved in disaster management on the PDNA approach and to adapt the tools.

Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Sept 1993
Description: 
Burkina Faso ratifies the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Mar 2005
Description: 
Burkina Faso ratifies the Kyoto Protocol
Month-Year: 
Nov 2007
Description: 
Burkina Faso adopts its National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA)
Month-Year: 
Oct 2008
Description: 
Burkina Faso takes part in the UNDP Adaptation in Africa Programme funded by the Government of Japan
Month-Year: 
Oct 2012
Description: 
Burkina Faso launches its NAP process of formulating a medium and long-term climate change adaptation strategy
Month-Year: 
Sept 2014
Description: 
Burkina Faso submits its Second National Communication to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Sept 2015
Description: 
Burkina Faso submits its INDC to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
Oct 2015
Description: 
Burkina Faso submits its NAP to the UNFCCC
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Supporting Argentina to advance their NAP process

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

In Argentina, changes in the climate have been observed since the second half of the past century and, according to the projections of the climatic models, these changes would intensify in this century. These changes have already caused impacts on natural and human systems. In most of the non-Patagonian Argentina there was an increase in temperature of up to a half degree between 1960 and 2010, with smaller increases in the center of the country. There was also a change towards more frequent intensified rainfall in much of the country, which resulted in more frequent floods caused by an inappropriate occupation and use of space that generated areas with high exposure and the inadequacy of the water works that were planned for weather conditions that are no longer valid. In the west and more noticeably in the north, the dry periods of winter have become longer. This has generated problems in the availability of water for some populations, created more favorable conditions for grassland fires and greater stress on livestock.

Argentina has submitted two National Communications to the United Nations Frameworks Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), laying out the actions that the government has already taken and the analytical basis for its policy response to climate change, as well as its commitments to take future actions within an official international framework. The National Program for Climate Change Impacts was created with the purpose of developing a national strategy for the better understanding of Argentina’s vulnerability to climate change impacts and for the development of adaptation measures to climate change. Among its functions is the implementation of studies related to the global climate change impact on the various climates of Argentina, elaboration of national climate change adaptation measures, coordination of climate change actions with other related national programs such as the one for desertification prevention.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established the Global Process of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) as a way to facilitate adaptation planning in developing countries. According to this strategy, Argentina considers that it is essential to take into account the adaptation aspects in the design and implementation of policies and programs. In its National Determined Contribution (NDC) -revised in 2016 and presented at the COP22 in Marrakesh-, Argentina has committed to articulate actions and initiatives related to adaptation to climate change through a systematic and participatory National Adaptation Plan. For the particular case of Argentina, several factors hinder the development of the NAP process, which are of legal and geographical nature. In the first case, the objective of carrying out the process in a participatory manner obliges the political area at the national level to make economic efforts to ensure the full participation of all provincial representatives and to support them in parallel processes of formulating provincial plans.

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Supported the vulnerability assessment and the NAP formulation

 

Within the work of National Cabinet in 2017, a participatory process was initiated to define priorities and to define which studies are the most important ones to carry out for the vulnerability analysis proposed in the project eventually outlined in Argentina’s Readiness Proposal that was developed in 2018. 
 

 

Produced a project document to identify entry points for the NAP process

 
With support of the NAP GSP, Argentina identified technical capacity needs, either at the national and sub-national level or at the sectoral level. With the Global Support Porgramme, Argentina drafted a project document that sets the basis for an adaptation strategy and includes tools for decision making and planning of the NAP process, and mechanisms to include local stakeholders, community‐based organizations, non‐governmental organizations and the private sector.
 
 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance

 

 

In January 2019, the GCF approved Argentina’s Readiness Proposal “Adaptation Planning support for Argentina through UNDP.” The NAP project will facilitate integration of climate change adaptation into existing strategies, policies and programs and in this way facilitate the assessment and reduction of vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. The Argentinean government will advance adaptation planning at a national, sub-national and sectorial level. The NAP Readiness will raise awareness on adaptation potential and needs at national, sub-national and local levels, as well as disseminate adaptation initiatives being carried out in the country and their respective impacts.

 

 

 

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POINT (-64.335937495662 -35.661759407894)
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News and Updates: 

Climate Change and Environment in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires - 1 October 2019 - Workshop organized by the Ombudsman's Office of CABA together with OHCHR, UN and UNDP in Argentina.

Sustainable Land Management NOA and Cuyo - 3rd. Call for projects - 2 March 2020 - Third call for projects for sustainable land management and comprehensive management of water resources in NOA and Cuyo.

Evidence for policymaking in Argentina, there we go! - 26 March 2020 - Evidence plays a fundamental role both in understanding our problems and in designing, implementing and measuring the impact that laws have on our day-to-day life.

Project Dates: 
2020
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
2015
Description: 
Argentina submits its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC
Month-Year: 
2016
Description: 
National Climate Change Cabinet is created with the objective of articulating policies that allow to face the consequences of climate change and to raise awareness in all the society on its relevance.
Month-Year: 
2018
Description: 
A consultative study is completed by DiTella Foundation on “Elements for a National Adaptation Strategy” in order to kick-start the preparation of a national adaptation plan for Argentina
Month-Year: 
2019
Description: 
Argentina hosts two trainings for municipalities with 40 participants about National Adaptation Planning
Month-Year: 
2019
Description: 
The GCF approves Argentina’s Readiness Proposal Adaptation Planning support for Argentina through UNDP
SDGs: 
SDG 13 - Climate Action