Land Degradation and Deforestation

Taxonomy Term List

Ecuador REDD+ Results Based Payments (Phase 3)

Ecuador just became the second country to receive financial resources from the Green Climate Fund (GCF) for having successfully reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation in the past. Ecuador registers a historic reduction of its deforestation rate: 48.6% during the last two decades.

The decision praised Ecuador’s efforts and commitment to implement environmental initiatives and policies for forest conservation and promotion of the sustainable use of biodiversity. The country went from annual net deforestation of 92,742 hectares in the period 1990-2000, to 47,497 hectares in the period 2008-2014.

To know more click here.

 

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-77.343749993332 -1.5745079222331)
Funding Source: 

Lessons Learned from Ecuador's REDD+ Platform for Stakeholder Engagement

For the implementation of REDD+, the participation of local communities and indigenous peoples as well as civil society is key. It is necessary that there is space for their opinions and needs to be expressed openly and that these opinions and needs influence the decision-making that may affect their territory. Participation is a constitutional right for indigenous peoples in Ecuador, established in Paragraph 7 of Article 57 of the Constitution, and in Article 100 for citizens. ” (REDD + Ecuador Action Plan - Forests for Good Living)

The Other Bar: Be Radical, Choose Equality

Backed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the FairChain Foundation, the Other Bar is the tastiest way to ensure a fairer way of doing business with farmers and producers in the developing world. The Other Bar is an experiment in radical equality, designed to take a bite out of poverty through the simple act of buying a chocolate bar. 

Financing Amount: 
18,571,766.00
Project Details: 

Ecuador just became the second country to receive financial resources from the Green Climate Fund (GCF) for having successfully reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation in the past. Ecuador registers a historic reduction of its deforestation rate: 48.6% during the last two decades.

The project will be implemented following UNDP’s national implementation modality, according to the Standard Basic Assistance Agreement between UNDP and the Government of Ecuador, and the Country Programme. It will be implemented over a period of 6 years, starting when GCF funds are disbursed to UNDP Ecuador. The implementation modality may be adjusted during implementation if and when needed, upon approval by MAE and UNDP. 
 
The Implementing Partner for the project is the Ministry of Environment (MAE).  The Implementing Partner is responsible and accountable for managing this project, including the monitoring and evaluation of project interventions, achieving project outcomes, and for the effective use of GCF resources. 
 
Project Documents
 

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

National REDD+ Action Plan Components

I. National REDD-plus Action Plan Strategic Component 1 − Policies and institutional management for REDD-plus

Output 1 Policies and institutional management for REDD-plus

Activity 1.1. Implementing land use plans at the local level

Activity 1.2. Improving the management of land rights within Protective Forests and National Protected Areas.

II. National REDD-plus Action Plan Strategic Component 2 - Transition to sustainable agricultural production systems

Output 2 - Transition to sustainable agricultural production systems;

Activity 2.1. Establishing a private-public partnership for marketing deforestation-free commodities from the Amazon

III. National REDD-plus Action Plan Strategic Components 3 and 4-  Sustainable forest management; and  Conservation and restoration.

Output 3. Sustainable forest management; Conservation and restoration.

Activity 3.1. Supporting the business case for forests: supporting SMEs

Activity 3.2. R&D on industrial uses of NTFP and other deforestation-free products

Activity 3.3. Increasing forest restoration efforts in the south west region of Ecuador

IV. National REDD+ Action Plan Operational components:-REDD-plus Policies & measures management; Monitoring and reference level; OC3 - Safeguards for REDD-plus; Capacity building and knowledge management; Stakeholder engagement and communication.

Output 4. Operational Management of the National REDD-plus Action Plan

Activity 4.1. Strengthening of the institutional capacities of the Ministry of Environment to manage the implementation of the REDD-plus Action Plan

Activity 4.2. Improving the National Forest Monitoring System capacity to monitor forest degradation

Activity 4.3. Implementation of the Environmental and Social Management Plan for the use of proceeds

Activity 4.4. Strengthening REDD-plus Implementation in Indigenous Territories

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

   

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Outcome
Implementation of the National REDD-plus Action Plan of Ecuador
 
Outputs:
Output 1: Policies and institutional management for REDD+ 
Output 2 - Transition to sustainable agricultural production systems; 
Output 3. Sustainable forest management; Conservation and restoration. 
Output 4. Operational Management of the National REDD-plan Action Plan
Output 5. Project Management
 
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Aug 2018
Description: 
REDD+ RBP Proposal Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
Jun 2019
Description: 
REDD+ RBP Proposal Submission (last)/awaiting GCF review/approval
Month-Year: 
Aug 2018
Description: 
GCF Comments on RBP Proposal (first)
Month-Year: 
Jun 2019
Description: 
GCF Comments on RBP Proposal (last)
Month-Year: 
Sep 2018
Description: 
Date when the last iTAP comments were received
Month-Year: 
Jul 2019
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6108

Brazil REDD+ Results Based Payments (Phase 3)

English

Forest sector actions to contribute to the implementation of Brazil’s Nationally Determined Contribution

The results-based payments received by Brazil from the GCF will contributed to the implementation of the forest sector actions of Brazil’s NDC. This project proposal has two main outputs:

  1. Development of a pilot of an Environmental Services Incentive Program for Conservation and Recovery of Native Vegetation (Floresta+); and
  1. Strengthen the implementation of Brazil’s ENREDD+ through improvements in its governance structure and systems.

 

To know more click here

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-46.757812498811 -12.032153834938)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
USD 96.5 million
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Floresta+ Pilot Program

The Floresta+ is a new and innovative pilot program that aims to provide incentives for environmental services (IES) in the Legal Amazon region, in accordance with Brazil’s Forest Code, the ENREDD+ and Brazil’s NDC. This IES pilot program will have the following specific objectives:

  1. provide monetary compensation to incentivize native vegetation conservation and recovery and improvement of ecosystems that generate environmental services (including but not limited to carbon);
  2. prevent the occurrence of deforestation, forest degradation and forest fires through financial incentives;
  3. incentivize the conservation and recovery of native vegetation of rural properties, conservation areas, indigenous lands, land settlements and traditional people and community lands;
  4. promote compliance with the environmental legislation, especially that related to the protection and recovery of native vegetation (Forest Code);
  5. offer a financial mechanism to foster the development and implementation of public policies aimed at conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

The target audience for the Floresta+ Pilot Program is comprised of:

  1. small farmers, according to art. 3º, V, of the Forest Code (Law nº 12.651/2012), up to 4 fiscal modules[1]
  2. indigenous peoples;
  3. traditional peoples and communities according to I, do art. 3º, of decree nº 6.040/2007 (that use their territory collectively); and
  4. public institutions or agencies (including States and municipalities), civil associations, cooperatives and private law foundations that act in topics related to conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

The prioritization of areas to be selected as beneficiaries for the Floresta+ pilot program will consider:

  1. regions with high pressure from deforestation, forest degradation and forest fires;
  2. priority areas for biodiversity conservation and for the recovery of native vegetation, according to norms defined by the MMA;
  3. buffer zones around protected areas;
  4. regions with higher density of small farmers;
  5. regions with higher concentration of traditional peoples and communities;
  6. integration with other public policies related to the conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

The Floresta+ Pilot Program will operate through resource distribution modalities such as:

  1. Modality 1 (Floresta+ Conservation): incentives to landowners and land users of rural properties according to the classification of item V, of article 3º, of the Forest Code (Law nº 12.651/2012), with the objective of conserving native vegetation remnants additional to the legal requirements;
  2. Modality 2 (Floresta+ Recovery): incentives to landowners and land users of rural properties according to the classification of item V, of article 3º, of the Forest Code (Law nº 12.651/2012), with the objective of recovering Permanent Preservation Areas (e.g. riparian forests, mountain tops and steep inclines);
  3. Modality 3 (Floresta+ Communities): support to associations and representative entities of indigenous peoples and traditional peoples and communities;
  4. Modality 4 (Floresta+ Innovation): support innovative actions and arrangements to develop, implement and leverage public policies for conservation and recovery of native vegetation.

 

Output 2: The implementation of Brazil’s ENREDD+

The resources received by Brazil from the GCF through REDD+ payments will be in part directed to support the:

  1. Expansion of the forest monitoring system and MRV to include additional REDD+ activities, pools and gases, considering the mapping products produced under the Brazilian Biomes Environmental Monitoring Program, for all biomes, as appropriate, following the guidance from the Working Group of Technical Experts on REDD+. The aim is to submit a national FREL to the UNFCCC by 2020.
  2. Development of a tool to monitor and measure the impacts of REDD-plus policies and investments and inform decision-making regarding the forest component of Brazil´s NDC.
  3. Improvement Brazil’s Safeguards Information System for REDD+ (SISREDD+) and its ombudsman, making it more complete, transparent and accessible.
  4. Enhancement of the capacities and access of the various stakeholders for participating in the CONAREDD+ and its Consultative Chambers, including the revision of the National REDD+ Strategy in 2020.
  5. South-south Cooperation Program in Forests and Climate Change designed by the MMA and the Brazilian Agency of Cooperation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (ABC/MRE)

 

A stronger governance structure and more transparent data and information systems will contribute to the long-term sustainability of these investments. It will also contribute for the effective implementation of the measures needed in the forest sector for the achievement of the national target indicated in Brazil’s NDC.


[1] A fiscal module is an agrarian unit used in each municipality in Brazil, defined according to the terms of article 50, section 2, of Law No. 6,746 of December 10, 1979. (Law No. 6.746/1979) This measure is meant to ensure Floresta+ is focused on small and medium households instead of larger land owners. Indeed 90% of farms have up to four fiscal modules according to INCRA.

 

Contacts: 
Mr. Pradeep Kurukulasuriya
Mr. Lucas Black
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 
Output 1: Floresta+ Pilot Program
 
Output 2: The implementation of Brazil’s ENREDD+ 
 
Project Dates: 
2019 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Aug 2015
Description: 
GCF Comments on RBP Proposal (first)
Month-Year: 
Sept 2018
Description: 
Date when the last iTAP comments were received
Month-Year: 
Aug 2018
Description: 
REDD+ RBP Proposal Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
Feb 2019
Description: 
REDD+ RBP Proposal Submission (last)/awaiting GCF review/approval
Month-Year: 
Feb 2019
Description: 
GCF Comments on RBP Proposal (last)
Month-Year: 
Feb 2019
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6121

Building Resilient Communities, Wetland Ecosystems and Associated Catchments in Uganda

English

The "Building Resilient Communities, Wetland Ecosystems and Associated Catchments in Uganda" project will support the Government of Uganda in the management of critical wetlands that are being affected by a changing climate. The project will restore wetlands and their eco-system services, based on the wise-use principles and guidelines  outlined by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. It also supports sustainable land management practices and reforestation, resilient agricultural practices and alternative livelihoods for communities living in these areas. This support will reduce the pressures on the wetlands. Finally the project seeks to strengthen the climate information and early warning systems to support these communities to make climate-resilient decisions.

The impact of climate change, coupled with other human and environmental stressors, is increasing degradation of wetlands and their associated ecosystem services in Uganda. This is negatively affecting the livelihoods of the people living in and around the wetlands – around 4,000,000 people. In fact, over 80% of the people living adjacent to wetland areas in Uganda directly use wetland resources for their household food security needs. Given that wetlands are highly vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of their water supply, climate change will most likely substantially alter ecologically important attributes of wetlands and will exacerbate the impacts from human activity. On the other hand, the loss of wetlands could exacerbate the impact of climate change in as they provide fundamental services that contribute to mitigation of such impacts.

 

Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (32.695312486957 0.89058628208695)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
800,000 people living in and around the wetlands of Southwestern and Eastern Uganda.
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$45 million total, US$24.9 million from Green Climate Fund, US$20.1 million from Government of Uganda and UNDP
Project Details: 

Uganda, wetlands provide many important functions to the people, particularly in the context of food security. This is in addition to its role as a habitat for biodiversity that is also important for the economy. According to a recent 2013 study on the value of wetlands in Uganda, several market and non-market benefits are identified: “The market benefits include water for domestic use and watering of livestock, support to dry season agriculture, provision of handicrafts, building materials, and food resources such as fish, yams, vegetables, wild game, and medicine. The non-market benefits include flood control, purification of water, and maintenance of the water table, microclimate moderation, and storm protection. Wetlands also serve as habitats for important flora and fauna, have aesthetic and heritage values, and contain stocks of biodiversity of potentially high pharmaceutical value. Over 80% of the people living adjacent to wetland areas in Uganda directly use wetland resources for their household food security needs.” In addition to supporting food and water security, wetlands also support income generation and employment. “Of a total population of 34 million Ugandans, it is estimated that wetlands provide about 320,000 workers with direct employment and provide subsistence employment for over 2.4 million.”

Wetland health and resilience can easily be compromised by climate change impacts. Climate change models for Uganda predict that temperatures will continue to increase, and there will be changes in the seasonal distribution and amount of rainfalls, more frequent extreme weather events, and increases in the frequency of heavy rainfalls. Increases in temperature and erratic rainfall will result in more frequent and intense floods, droughts and heat waves, which will directly threaten wetlands and livelihoods that rely on its healthy ecosystem services. Hydrologic and drainage maps of the project targeted sites (the eastern and southwestern Wetlands Basin) indicate that most of the freshwater inflows pass through the wetlands and natural forests. These systems have played an integral role in maintaining the quality of water over the centuries. However, over the last three decades, climate change impacts, as well as other baseline (non-climate) issues such as excessive sedimentation and non-native species invasions, have resulted in substantial water quality deterioration.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1: Restoration and management of wetland hydrology and associated forests
Under this sub-component, at least 760 km2 of degraded wetlands and its associated catchment will be restored and the lives of 500,000 people will be improved in selected districts of Eastern and South Western Uganda. The overall aim of the intervention is to restore the ecological and hydrological integrity of the wetland and support the development and implementation of a community-based framework for wetland management plans. This will help support climate risk management and resilient livelihoods through enhanced ecosystems services in the area.

Output 2: Improved agricultural practices and alternative livelihood options in the wetland catchment
This output will target at least 150,000 farmers including those who currently do not have secure access to irrigation, land-poor farmers, women-headed households, and the landless, to build more climate-resilient livelihoods. Investments in small-scale rural infrastructure (shallow bore wells, drip irrigation, tilling tools) for agricultural purposes, especially on-farm water management infrastructure such as dams, canals, drip irrigation systems, as well as farming best practices and crop diversification will be implemented to realize high economic return given their coverage. In addition, the output will focus on technical skills training for employment in key economic sectors viable in wetland areas, such as tourism, health and construction. Most of the beneficiaries have very low levels of education and no skills that can help them find a job. Beneficiaries will be trained in specific skills with high employability potential (e.g. earth mover, driver, assistant nurse, reception clerk in hotels, desktop publishing).Output 3: Strengthening access to climate and early warning information to farmers and other target communities to support wetland management

Output 3: Strengthening access to climate and early warning information to farmers and other target communities to support wetland management
This output will focus on strengthening access to reliable climate-related information and scaling up advisories for farmers and other target communities in the two wetland target areas, to improve the adaptation capacity of the entire population in and around the wetlands – around 1 million people. This will include the expansion of networks that generate and process climate-related data into relevant information to the scale and location of local districts, villages or communities, as well as dissemination of climate-related information/services, advisories and early warnings to communities. A strong focus of this output will be on delivering actionable climate-related information to communities, taking the form of agro-met advisories for agriculture, as well as the dissemination channels for making information available to the “last mile.”

Contacts: 
UNDP
Benjamin Larroquette
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
Green Climate Fund
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 6 July 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 7 July 2017
Request from UNDP to GCF to release funding: 13 October 2017
Inception Workshop - Begin Project Implementation: 29 November 2017

 

 

 

Exposure

 

YouTube

In the News

Government of Uganda and UNDP launch implementation of a $44.26 million project to restore wetlands and build community resilience

The Government of Uganda and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have kick-started a new project on "building community resilience, wetlands ecosystems and associated catchments in Uganda." The new project, which is Uganda’s first Green Climate Fund-financed initiative, is a response to the Presidential Initiative on Wetlands. The project inception meeting held on 29 November 2017 marks the start of project implementation and comes after both entities signed a financing agreement in August 2017 for the project, which is intended to restore degraded wetlands, improve ecosystems, and strengthen climate information and early warning systems. The grant based project will target an estimated 4 million people who live in and around Uganda’s wetlands and rely on them for food security. It is part of both the Government Uganda and United Nations efforts to promote Sustainable Development Goal 13 on climate action as well as fulfil its obligations to the Paris Agreement on Climate Change which it ratified last year. “Fighting climate change and its effects is now a key goal for the Government of Uganda. We are delighted that this project is going to enable us to respond to the President’s call to protect wetlands and boost our ongoing efforts in climate change mitigation and adaptation,” Hon. Mary Goretti Kitutu, the State Minister Environment, said at the inception workshop for the project.

 

Uganda, UNDP Sign Landmark Financing Agreement to Restore Wetlands

Chimp Reports
25 August 2017

The Government of Uganda and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have today August 23 signed a financing agreement for the Green Climate Fund (GCF) project to restore degraded wetlands, improve ecosystems, strengthen climate information and early warning systems. Hon. Matia Kasaija, the Finance Minister signed on behalf of the Government and Ms. Rosa Malango, the UNDP Resident Representative and UN Resident Coordinator for Uganda signed on behalf of UNDP.

 

Twitter Moments

Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
The Building Resilient Communities, Wetland Ecosystems and Associated Catchments in Uganda project will support the Government of Uganda in the management of critical wetlands that are being affected by a changing climate. The project will restore wetlands and their eco-system services, based on the wise-use principles and guidelines outlined by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. It also supports sustainable land management practices and reforestation, resilient agricultural practices and alternative livelihoods for communities living in these areas. This support will reduce the pressures on the wetlands. Finally the project seeks to strengthen the climate information and early warning systems to support these communities to make climate-resilient decisions. The impact of climate change, coupled with other human and environmental stressors, is increasing degradation of wetlands and their associated ecosystem services in Uganda. This is negatively affecting the livelihoods of the people living in and around the wetlands – around 4,000,000 people. In fact, over 80% of the people living adjacent to wetland areas in Uganda directly use wetland resources for their household food security needs. Given that wetlands are highly vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of their water supply, climate change will most likely substantially alter ecologically important attributes of wetlands and will exacerbate the impacts from human activity. On the other hand, the loss of wetlands could exacerbate the impact of climate change in as they provide fundamental services that contribute to mitigation of such impacts.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

 

Output 1: Restoration and management of wetland hydrology and associated forests 

 

Output 2: Improved agricultural practices and alternative livelihood options in the wetland catchment

 

Output 3: Strengthening access to climate and early warning information to farmers and other target communities to support wetland management

 

 

Project Dates: 
2017 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jul 2015
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
May 2017
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (last)
Month-Year: 
Dec 2016
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Month-Year: 
Jul 2017
Description: 
FAA Effectiveness
Month-Year: 
Sep 2017
Description: 
Disbursement Request Submission
Month-Year: 
Oct 2017
Description: 
Actual Date of First Installment (from GCF)
Month-Year: 
Nov 2017
Description: 
Inception Workshop
Proj_PIMS_id: 
5711

Mountain Ecosystem-based Adaptation in Nepal

The Harpan Watershed, Panchase in Nepal lies in the mid-hills of Nepal and consists of valleys, hills and the high mountains of the Himalayas. The economy of the Panchase is largely subsistence, based on crop production and livestock. There is high climatic variation due to changes in altitude and an average rainfall of 3, 355mm. The selected project site, the Harpan watershed, is about 15 km² with sub-tropical to temperate climate. There are about 900 households with a population of 4,598.

Through the global Ecosystems-based Adaptation (EbA) in Mountains Programme, UNDP, UNEP and IUCN, with funding from the German Government (BMUB), are using sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems, as part of an overall EbA adaptation strategy, to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of select fragile mountain ecosystems and their local communities to climate change impacts. The promoted EbA measures carefully take into account anticipated climate change impacts trends to ensure a forward-looking process.

For more information visit the Global Ecosystems Based Adaptation in Mountains Programme profile, or the EbA Flagship

Undefined
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (84.221191366963 28.459485801749)
Funding Source: 
Project Details: 

The Nepal Pilot Project of the global Ecosystem-based Adaptation in Mountains Programme aims to enhance capacity of local communities, demonstrate EbA measures for continued provision of ecosystem services, and support in strengthening the institutional capacity of key national Nepalese actors to build and better integrate ecosystem resilience options in national, sub-national and local level plans.

It is working to specifically support 4 outcomes:

  • Development of methodologies and tools for EbA decision-making in mountain ecosystems;
  • Application of EbA tools and methodologies at the ecosystem level;
  • Implementation of EbA pilot initiatives at the ecosystem level; and
  • Development of a business case for EbA at the national level.

In Nepal, the Project is implemented by the Department of Forests (DoF) under the Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation (MoFSC) and is coordinated by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MoSTE). Similarly, there are three implementing agencies: UNEP, UNDP and IUCN. EbA initiatives are concentrated in 17 VDCs (Village Development Committees) of the ‘Panchase’ region and covers three districts – Kaski, Syangja and Parbat.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Some key accomplishments for the project include:

  • The project has prioritized 3 important sub-watersheds – Rati, Saradi and Harpan - and focused on different interventions such as ecosystem restoration, water conservation, land rehabilitation, livelihood diversification and capacity enhancement of government agencies and local communities.
  • Practices, like water source conservation and construction of conservation ponds, have been initiated in the pilot sites to address water scarcity issues, since the water sector is significantly affected by climate change in Nepal. These initiatives have helped reduce drudgery in fetching water required for dominant rural livelihood practices, i.e. subsistence agriculture and livestock rearing. 
  • Out-migration in Panchase has resulted in an increasing amount of abandoned and barren land. The Project has hence carried out plantation initiatives of endemic multi–use species to protect these lands from further degradation and also complement the needs of rural people for fuel wood and fodder. Additionally, the Project has supported nursery establishment in the region to provide easy access to seedlings species for plantations by the locals. Likewise, land degradation resulting from unplanned rural road construction has been addressed by roadside greenery promotion and roadside rehabilitation, using engineered structures such as ‘gabion cages’ that are supplemented by plantations. Similarly, several landslide and gully control initiatives have also been carried out in the project pilot sites.
  • Rangeland management has been done by building compound walls to halt over-grazing activities of the livestock and protect the grassland ecosystem from further degradation. The Project has also distributed fodder species to reduce the pressure on the open degraded land.
  • Several river bank conservation initiatives with application of grey-green measures, i.e. engineered structures coupled with bamboo plantation, have been carried out to protect agricultural lands in the river banks to reduce deposition of sediment downstream.
  • The Harpan Sub-watershed is an important feeder to the nationally important Phewa Lake, which today suffers from massive deposition of silt. The Project has, therefore, carried out a comprehensive study on the siltation process of Harpan Khola and subsequently proposed construction of ecosystem-based siltation control techniques and a siltation dam in the Harpan River.
  • The EbA concept has now been mainstreamed in Bachelors of Science (BSc) degree syllabus of the Tribhuvan University, Central Department of Environmental Science (CDES). Similarly, to reduce the research gap, EbA has provided research grants to the students of Tribhuvan University to undertake research work in the EbA site to investigate the effectiveness of EbA options.
  • The Project broadcasted radio programs named ‘Panchase ko Serofero’ through Radio barahi-99.2, Radio saligram-100.6 and Syangja FM-89.6, respectively, from Kaski, Parbat and Syangja to increase local level awareness on ecosystems and EbA.

Some policy-related accomplishments include:

  • Led by UNDP, the Nepal project has been engaged in the process of establishing the newly formed High-Level Technical Committee on EbA to be led by the Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation. The main role of the Committee is to coordinate and mainstream ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation into different sectoral plans and programmes. The Committee includes representatives from various Ministries, such as National Planning Commission, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development.  The first meeting of the Committee was scheduled for last week of September.
  • The results of the Cost-benefit analysis carried out by the Nepal project, led by UNDP, will be presented in a high-level event, organized jointly with the High-level Technical Committee, in October.
  • The new Forest Policy (2015) has climate change as one of seven thematic areas and includes EbA as one of the approaches put forward for adaptation. The project, led by UNDP, is involved in a working group developing a 5-yr action plan for the delivery of the climate change area of this Policy in all 75 Districts of Nepal. The project is providing direct technical input into how this key national policy will be implemented in practice with regards to climate change and making the case for integrating EbA measures into its delivery.
  • The Nepal project, led by UNDP, has provided technical and financial support to produce draft Guidelines on Protected Forests, which provide regulations and directives on managing Protected Forests and are in the process of being endorsed by Government. The proposed Guidelines incorporate EbA and provide the opportunity for integrating EbA into the national Protection Forest management plans and programmes.

 

 

 

Contacts: 
Mr. Yalamber (Pragyajan) Rai
Nepal Project Coordinator a.i.
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Mountain Ecosystem-based Adaptation in Uganda

Mount Elgon landscape in Uganda is the seventh highest mountain in Africa, a major catchment area and straddles the border between Kenya and Uganda. The climate is cool with a mean annual rainfall of 1,270 mm. The population of Mount Elgon is almost entirely rural and dependent on subsistence agriculture, with approximately 564,000 people living in the 4 districts which make up the project site. The region is home to Mt Elgon National Park and is of great conservation value, but high population density means that agriculture is spreading rapidly.

Through the global Ecosystems-based Adaptation (EbA) in Mountains Programme, UNDP, UNEP and IUCN, with funding from the German Government (BMUB), are using sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems, as part of an overall EbA adaptation strategy, to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of select fragile mountain ecosystems and their local communities to climate change impacts. The promoted EbA measures carefully take into account anticipated climate change impacts trends to ensure a forward-looking process. 

For more information visit the Global Ecosystems Based Adaptation in Mountains Programme profile, or the EbA Flagship website

Undefined
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (34.573974579251 1.1647280747485)
Funding Source: 

UNDP Uganda: Ecosystem Based Adaptation in Uganda

This documentary highlights the need for mainstreaming ecosystem-based adaptation strategies into national policies to ensure that actions against climate change is planned for. It puts a strong emphasis on the importance of Government funding such measures into the future through core budgets.

Project Details: 

The objective of this Uganda pilot project under the global Mountain EbA Programme is to reduce the vulnerability of Uganda to climate change impacts through piloting Ecosystem-based Adaptation options with particular emphasis on mountain ecosystems in the Mt Elgon region.

It is working to specifically support 4 outputs:

  • The development of decision-making tools for ecosystem-based adaptation for assessing ecosystem resilience,
  • Field testing the tools in the pilot countries,
  • Making investments in and building capacity for EbA at select demonstration sites, and
  • Establishing the economic benefits and financial costs of EbA, to guide national policies.

The project is implemented by the Ministry of Water and Environment (MWE) focusing on the Districts of Sironko and Bulambuli (implementation supported by UNDP) and Kapchorwa and Kween (Implementation supported by IUCN).

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Some key accomplishments for the project include:

  • A Vulnerability Impact Assessment (VIA) has been carried out to determine which EbA interventions can be used to support the communities in the selected project area.
  • About 600 households within the 4 districts (Kween, Kapchorwa, Sironko & Bulambuli) have received training in climate-smart interventions and are implementing them on their land. Local platforms including local radios are being used for knowledge sharing. 
  • Different techniques in support of climate-resilient agriculture have been encouraged, including mulching, use of organic fertilizer, improved water retention through roadside drainage bunds, run off retention drains, diversion bands in crop gardens; and gravity flow irrigation (benefitting over 1,000 formerly water-stressed community members in 3 villages in Sanzara Parish).
  • Practices like soil and water conservation structures, have also been promoted, including contour trenches, contour ridges, retention or check dams, infiltration ditches and contour bands; tree planting for stabilization of soil and water conservation, with appropriate species together with contour grass strips; and the management and protection of existing forests and trees on the farm.
  • At the local governance level, structures for natural resource governance have been strengthened, including a schematic framework for managing a new adaptation fund in all the three catchments, including the communities and district technical staff.
  • The ECOTRUST PES facility being piloted by the project was officially launched in March 2015 by the Minister of Water and Environment, Hon. Ephraim Kamuntu. The Minister emphasized the contribution of the fund to many of the investment priorities identified in the National Development Plan of Uganda such as skills development, water and sanitation; and facilitating availability and access to critical production inputs especially in agriculture.
  • With support from the project, the Ministry of Water and Environment is developing guidelines on how to integrate EbA into national and district level planning and policies. This is a participatory process that has been done through training workshops and provision of tools. A specific training package on implementing EbA in Mt Elgon has also been developed, which provides step to step guidance on planning and implementing EbA aimed as a tool at supporting extension services
  • The cost-benefit analysis results and data generated will be used to advocate the case for EbA to government during a meeting of the Top Policy Committee of the Ministry of Water & Environment. This will then be followed up at during the Joint Sector Water & Environment Review (week of 5th Oct) being held by the National Climate Change Policy Committee and the National Environment & Natural Resources Sector Working Group.
Contacts: 
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 

Mountain Ecosystem-based Adaptation in Peru

The Nor Yauyos-Cochas Landscape Reserve in Peru is located in the Lima and Junin regions in the high Andean area of the upper Cañete and Pachacayo river basins. The reserve is a living landscape of significant conservation value, in which local communities maintain their ancestral ways in harmony with nature. The climate is variable due to altitude (between 2300 and 6000 metres above sea level) and annual rainfall varies between 500 to 1000 mm. The population living in the Reserve is confined to 12 communities with an estimated population of 10, 390. The main economic activity of these communities is agricultural and livestock production for local subsistence.
 
The Mountain Ecosystems-based Adaptation program (EbA) is a collaborative initiative of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) (through its implementing partner, the Mountain Institute (TMI) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Public Works and Nuclear Safety of the German Government (BMUB). In Peru, the programme is run by the Ministry of Environment of Peru (MINAM) and is implemented in the Nor Yauyos-Cochas Landscape Reserve (NYCLR), with support from the National Service for Protected Natural Areas (SERNANP, in Spanish). 
 
For more information visit the Global Ecosystems Based Adaptation in Mountains Programme profile, or the EBA Flagship website

 

Undefined
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-74.663085956077 -11.555380300745)
Funding Source: 

Cambio climático en la Reserva Paisajística Nor Yauyos Cochas

El proyecto EbA Montaña trabaja con el SERNANP y las comunidades campesinas de la Reserva Paisajística Nor Yauyos Cochas para que se adapten al cambio climático. Conoce más del proyecto y las medidas de adaptación basada en ecosistemas que vienen implementando en este video.

Project Details: 

The objective of this Peru pilot project under the global Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) in Mountains Programme is to reduce the vulnerability of Peru to climate change impacts through piloting EbA options with particular emphasis on mountain ecosystems in the Nor Yauyos-Cochas Landscape Reserve.

It is working to specifically support 4 outputs:

  • The development of decision making tools for ecosystem based adaptation for assessing ecosystem resilience,
  • Field testing the tools in the pilot countries,
  • Making investments in and building capacity for EbA at select demonstration sites, and
  • Establishing the economic benefits and financial costs of EbA, to guide national policies.

The project is a collaborative initiative of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), funded by Germany’s Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB). In Peru, the programme is commissioned by the Ministry of Environment of Peru (MINAM for its Spanish acronym) and is implemented in the Nor Yauyos-Cochas Landscape Reserve with the support of the National Service of Natural Protected Areas (SERNANP for its Spanish acronym). The activities under IUCN’s responsibility are implemented in partnership with the Mountain Institute (TMI).

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Some key accomplishments for the project include:

  • A Vulnerability Impact Assessment (VIA) has been carried out to determine which EbA interventions can be used to support the communities in the selected project area.
  • Three vulnerable areas have been identified in the NYCLR: Canchayllo, Miraflores and Tanta. Two EbA measures per area are being implemented.
  • Information from the VIA (Vulnerability and Impact Assessment) for the NYCLR is being incorporated into the updated version of the NYCLR Master Plan.
  • Support to both regional governments in Junin and Lima in the updating of their Regional Climate Change Strategies and the addition of EbA approaches to these tools.
  • A local Communication Network for the NYCLR has been developed by the project. 11 park rangers and 21 students of the NYCLR have learnt about climate change and how to use communication tools for their own development.
  • In Tanta, the community decided to free the Moyobamba area (vicuña natural habitat) of domestic animals to be an exclusive area for vicuñas.
  • Capacity building and technical assistance in livestock and vicuña management, including animal husbandry of vicuña population.
  • Installation of fences in 2000 hectares of communal land for livestock, and conservation of 1500 hectares of vicuña habitat.
  • In Miraflores and Canchayllo no regret measures are being implemented. In both places local villagers have become local researchers and have strengthen their capacity in pasture and water management.
  • In Canchayllo, a natural water reservoir dam was restored to reduce water filtration and ensure its storage during the dry season. Also, an underground pipe was restored to transport water from the upper part of the watershed (near Chacara Lake) to the community farm (Jutupuqio).
  • In Miraflores, a protection zone (5ha) was enlarged around the Yanacancha lakes encircling the upper micro-watershed in order to prevent cattle and other animals from entering the area.

Policy-related accomplishments:

  • In August 2015, Peru officially approved Policy Guidelines for Public Investment in Biodiversity and Ecosystems, with the expectation that this instrument will facilitate new and additional public investment aligned with the National Biodiversity Strategy.
  • Of particular interest is that the UNDP BIOFIN and the Peru Mountain EbA projects worked together since February 2015 in close coordination with the Ministries of Environment and Economy and Finance to facilitate the incorporation of climate change and specifically EbA into the guidelines. For example, the consideration of climate change as a cross-cutting issue is included as one of the Strategic Policy Guidelines (p6).
  • As next steps, BIOFIN and the Peru Mountain EbA project are collaborating in the design of a pilot Public Investment Project for the community of Tomas in the Nor Yauyos Cochas Landscape Reserve, as an opportunity to replicate EbA actions undertaken in Tanta and taking advantage of the political will and support of the Tomas municipality.
  • Following this, UNDP and other agencies will support MINAM and MEF in capacity building of local and regional governments and development of additional pilots, as part of an effort to expand the use out the guidelines at the national level. Technical support will also be provided to develop impact indicators to be used by MINAM and MEF of the biodiversity and ecosystem-focused PIPs.
  • The Peru Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) is currently being developed. The project team has contributed by reviewing the draft and providing recommendations on how to integrate EbA. The draft INDC includes EbA measures in its sector/system specific adaptation contributions for water, agriculture and forestry. The INDC even refers to the Mountain EbA Programme specifically as a key project that has contributed to the adaptation process in Peru.
Contacts: 
Gonzalo Quiroz
Jefe de las Reserva Paisajistica Nor Yauyos Cochas
Fostering Resilience for Food Security
Edith Fernandez Baca
Peru Project Coordinator
Fostering Resilience for Food Security
James Leslie
Technical Advisor, Ecosystems and Climate Change
Guinea Bissau
Karen Podvin
Project Officer
Ivory Coast
Florencia Zapata
Sub Director of Institutional Development
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
News and Updates: 

  Learning by doing: the construction of the approach and program EbALunahuana, Cañete, 25 to May 30, 2015 - The third Global technical workshop on ecosystem-based adaptation learning for the Global Mountain EbA programme, which is running in Nepal, Uganda and Peru, was held. The workshop aimed to identify and assess the contributions that the program has made ​​in EbA mainstreaming in public policies and in building resilience and adaptive capacity of local populations.

  CRiSTAL Parques, 26-29 January, 2015 - Del 26 al 29 de enero de 2015 se aplicó, en la Reserva Paisajística Nor Yauyos Cochas (RPNYC) de Perú, la herramienta CRiSTAL Parques, un instrumento de apoyo a la toma de decisiones que ayuda a los profesionales de la conservación y a los responsables de Áreas Protegidas (AP) a integrar riesgos climáticos en su planificación.

  Ruedo en las alturas - El Chaccu, tradición ancestral de arreo de vicuñas, es hoy una importante medida de adaptación al cambio climático basada en ecosistemas.

  Dioses del agua - Para los pobladores de Canchayllo, distrito de Jauja, en la Reserva Paisajística Nor Yauyos Cochas, el cambio climático ha sido una buena excusa para el ingenio y los buenos reflejos. Ahí se han modificado comportamientos, infraestructura y organización con el fin de potenciar, conservar y restaurar la administración de pastos y agua de la zona. Esta es su historia.

  Viaje por los ecosistemas del Perú, Lima, 7 December 2014 -  Junto a un cuentacuentos y pobladores de la costa, sierra y selva del Perú, los proyectos EbA Montaña, EBA Amazonía y Humboldt del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD), presentaron en el Auditorio Principal de la feria Voces por el clima -espacio para la sociedad civil en el marco de la COP20 en Lima-, “Mi montaña, mi bosque, mi mar: nuestro pan de cada día”, una puesta en escena que utilizó la tradición oral para contar cómo las comunidades se están adaptando al cambio climático.

  Presentan avances en el Proyecto EbA Montaña, Huancayo, 4 February 2015 - El 4 de febrero en la ciudad de Huancayo, se reunieron los miembros del Comité Directivo del Proyecto EbA Montaña para informar acerca de los avances del proyecto, discutir el Plan Operativo Anual y la presentación de los resultados del estudio de Vulnerabilidad, Impacto y Adaptación al cambio climático (VIA) en la Reserva Paisajística Nor Yauyos Cochas (RPNYC), área de intervención del proyecto, a cargo del equipo de Centro de Datos para la Conservación (CDC)-Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina y la Universidad de Columbia.

  Proyecto EbA Montaña participa en el Foro Mundial de Montañas en Cusco, 23-25 May 2014 - El Foro Mundial de Montañas (WMF, por sus siglas en inglés) -un espacio de encuentro para la ciencia, los tomadores de decisión y los activistas del Desarrollo Sostenible de las Montañas del mundo- se desarrolló en Cusco, Perú del 23 al 25 de mayo de 2014. El objetivo fue crear un espacio que permita la discusión y el intercambio de experiencias en temas vinculados al cambio climático, agricultura familiar, comunidades y ciudades de montaña, en el marco del trabajo en los ecosistemas de montaña.

  EbA Montaña en Perú identifica vulnerabilidad e impacto frente al cambio climático de la RPNYC, 26 March 2014, se presentó en la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM) la Evaluación de Vulnerabilidad e Impacto (EVI) frente al cambio climático de la Reserva Paisajística Nor Yauyos Cochas, el cual forma parte del proyecto Adaptación basada en Ecosistemas de Montaña (EbA Montaña) en Perú. Fue preparado entre agosto de 2012 y diciembre de 2013 gracia a un acuerdo entre el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente (PNUMA) y la Fundación para el Desarrollo Agrario (FDA) de la UNALM.
 

Building Adaptive Capacity and Resilience of Women and Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Climate change and its effects on rainfall patterns and temperatures are exacerbating the vulnerability of rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Women in particular, who represent 60% of agricultural labourers and 73% of farmers, and produce 80% of food crops for household consumption, are at risk. Several dynamics make their adaptation more difficult such as lack of access to formal education, economic poverty, food insecurity, limited access to resources, etc. These inequalities increase women’s vulnerability to harmful climate change impacts while limiting their options for coping and adaptation. 

The GEF-LDCF funded project, Building Adaptive Capacity and Resilience of Women and Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, seeks to support women and children through a community-centred approach to adopt and adapt livelihood strategies in innovative ways based on current and future climate changes scenarios. 

Undefined
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (23.8183593597 -5.24412756697)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The women and children of the rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Financing Amount: 
$4,725,000
Co-Financing Total: 
$15,500,000
Project Details: 

More Information to come...

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The project has two main components with the following outcomes –

  1. Climate resilient diversification practices to secure communities livelihoods including the development of profitable climate resilient alternative livelihoods involving aquaculture, livestock and agriculture products by women groups to increase sources of revenue and improve family nutrition (Outcome 1.1); Installation of at least 200 unsophisticated food processing units (oil presses, presses and grated cassava, husking machines and millers, etc.) and fish conservation units by women's groups (Outcome 1.2); Production and distribution of certified adapted varieties of  at least 400 seeds multipliers through support of 50 women groups (Outcome 1.3);  Provision of 4 automated agro-meteorological stations and 400 rain-gauge for tailored agro-meteorological information (Outcome 1.4) and; Installation of small scale water saving technologies and distribution systems in high climate risks zone (Outcome 1.5)
  2. Development of key capacities for undertaking climate resilient activities including training and engagement of women's groups in food processing, processing technology, maintenance of units, rural finance, marketing and organization strategies (Outcome 2.1); Engagement of women’s groups in adapted seeds production and diversification, soil fertility and water management activities (Outcome 2.2); Extending support to nearly 10 rural radio stations and 100 community volunteers as well as producers and staffs from extension services to analyse, interpret, produce and disseminate climate and weather information (Outcome 2.3) and; Establishment of community learning mechanisms through website, technical papers, video, technical forums, and other relevant media/social networks (Outcome 2.4).
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

More Information to come...

Contacts: 
UNDP
Mame Diop
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

More Information to come...

Display Photo: 

Marshall Islands' Second National Communication

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

The major impacts that climate change is projected to have in the Marshall Islands are sea level rise and associated shoreline erosion. This observation reflects the low-lying nature of the atolls the form the country; its highest point of land is found on the island of Likiep and extends 10 meters above sea level. In  its  Initial  National  Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) released in 2000, the Marshall Islands identified the following sectors as being particularly vulnerable to climate change: water resources, coastal resources, agriculture resources, marine resources (including fisheries) and human health.
 
To view progress on the Marshall Islands' SNC visit: http://unfccc.int/national_reports/non-annex_i_natcom/submitted_natcom/i...
Undefined
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (171.380921969 7.09096710419)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

Overall, the most appropriate and effective adaptation measures and strategies are most likely to be those that will be beneficial even in the absence of climate and sea-level change. Such measures and strategies could be considered as “no regrets” adaptation options. Therefore, in the first instance, the capacity of the Marshall Islands to adapt to the effects of climate and sea-level change will largely be determined by its ability to address on-going environmental, social and economic problems. Adaptation includes three main types of activities. First, there are adaptive actions that include activities targeted at specific sectors where climate change effects have been identified. Second, another group of adaptive measures are equally important and include general policies and actions by government to address some of the social driving forces of environmental problems which will heighten vulnerability to climate change effects. Third, it is also important to increase the capabilities of the Marshall Islands to effectively implement adaptations.

The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) are located off the northeast coast of New Zealand, scattered in an archipelago consisting of two roughly parallel island chains. There are twenty nine atolls and five reefs without lagoons which are made up of about 1,225 islands and 870 reef systems. Twenty-two of the atolls and four of the islands are inhabited. The atolls extend about 700 miles (1130km) north to south, and about 800 miles (1290km) east to west. While some of the islands are several kilometers long they rarely exceed a few hundred meters in width and are often considerably narrower. Land elevations are very low, with a mean height above sea level of only two meters (7 feet). The combination of small land areas and low land elevations contributes to the ecological vulnerability in the Republic. There is concern that any change in sea-level could seriously upset the fragile balance between the land and the sea. The RMI consist of fragments of Islands or low Lying Atoll Courtesy of MIVA.  Isolated by ocean, the Republic is more than 2,000 miles (3230km) from the nearest trading centers, Honolulu and Tokyo. Geographically, the RMI’s nearest neighbors are Kiribati to the south and the Federated States of Micronesia to the west. The Republic’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) encompasses over 750,000 square miles (1.2 million sq km) of the Central Pacific.  Subsistence agriculture and fishing are the country’s main industry; the tourism industry makes a noteworthy contribution along with development funds from the United States.  

Adaptation Needs and Priorities
 
The major impacts that climate change is projected to have in the Marshall Islands are sea level rise and associated shoreline erosion (EPA, 2000). This observation reflects the low-lying nature of the atolls the form the country; its highest point of land is found on the island of Likiep and extends 10 meters above sea level (CIA, 2011).  In  its  Initial  National  Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) released in 2000, the Marshall Islands identified the following sectors as being particularly vulnerable to climate change: water resources, coastal resources, agriculture resources, marine resources (including fisheries) and human health (EPA, 2000). To address these vulnerabilities, the Marshall Islands identified the following actions (EPA, 2000): 
 
  • Institutional  strengthening, such as by ensuring that governmental departments  are adequately structured and equipped with appropriate skills and tools, and are capable of delivering an integrated response to the challenges arising from climate change and accelerated sea level rise.
  • Project management and operational training for all stakeholders involved in climate change programs and the implementation of adaptation projects. 
  • Accurate documentation of baseline conditions from which to measure climate induced changes to the shorelines, reef and island ecosystem and affected settlements and communities.
  • Research capacity needs to be strengthened by ensuring adequate  support at the professional and technical levels, and by providing financial support  for baseline bio-physical and socioeconomic environmental research, monitoring changes to environmental conditions and implementing adaptation measures. 
  • Appropriate systems are needed for spatial and other data generated through vulnerability assessments, monitoring programs, 
    integrated coastal zone management planning and the implementation of adaptation projects.
  • Confidence and capacity building programs are needed for government departments, members of local councils and nongovernment organizations.
  • Community awareness and education programs.
  • Proactive participation in international forums and meetings are needed with the aim of continuing to keep the issues confronting small island states, when they are responding to climate change.
 
National Level Policies and Strategic Documents
 
The  Initial National Communication (2000) of the Marshall Islands reviews the national activities that have been taking place in the Marshall Islands, including vulnerability and adaptation case study and participation in the Pacific Islands Climate Change Assistance Program (PICCAP). There is a brief outline of the future and immediate adaptation needs of the country, followed by a possible list of policy actions that could help the Marshall Islands adapt to climate change in some key areas (EPA, 2000):
 
  • Land Use and Planning: amendment of land use planning policies to include adaptations to climate change.
  • Environment and Natural Resources: amendment of environmental and natural policies to include adaptations to climate change.
  • Natural Hazard Management: amendment of natural hazard management policies to include adaptations to climate change.
  • Administration and Management: initiation of administrative arrangements and management policies to deal with the core sectoral concerns in terms of water resources, coastal resources, agricultural resources, marine resources and human health.
  • Human Health: Development of a comprehensive suite of human health policies to address water borne diseases and other sicknesses that are related to climate-induced change.
  • Solid and Liquid Waste Management: Provide broad management policies for domestic solid waste and discharges of liquid effluent including consideration of a strategy to convert solid domestic and some industrial wastes to saleable energy.
  • Foreign Affairs: Enhancement of foreign policy frameworks. 
  • Center of Excellence: establish a Centre of Excellence to expand the role of the Marshall  Islands in the international as well as national issues of climate change.
  • Technology Exchange: technology exchange policies to address applied research and monitoring (information management).

More recently Marshall Islands developed the RMI Climate Change Roadmap 2010 as a national framework for their climate change and sustainable development  efforts.  With respect to  adaptation,  actions identified by  the Marshall Islands Government  included: the implementation of a Micronesia Challenge and Reimaanlok Action Plan; planning and interventions to address vulnerability in food security, public health and other social development areas; and protection and maintenance of key infrastructure and resources through planning and inter-agency coordination (FSF, 2010).  

Current Adaptation Action

As noted, the Marshall Islands previously participated in the PICCAP, which was initiated in 1995. Funded by the Global Environment Facility and implemented through the United Nations Development Programme, PICCAP was executed by the Secretariat to Pacific Regional Environmental Program in 10 Pacific Island countries (Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu) (Plume, 2002).
At present, the Marshall Islands appears to be participating in a low number of adaptation projects relative to other countries in the Pacific region; and all are being undertaken as part of broader, multi-country initiatives. These projects are attending needs related to agriculture, forestry, tourism, gender and policy and planning. Most projects emphasize capacity building, training and policy and planning. Funding for these projects is being provided by  the Asian Development Bank (ADB),  the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF), and the governments of Canada and Germany.
 
Proposed Adaptation Action
 
Proposed adaptation actions within the Marshall Islands were not identified through this review.  
 
References:

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness

Potential Adaptation Measures:

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Develop new crops

Water Resources

  • Increase water supply, e.g. by using groundwater, building reservoirs, improving or stabilizing watershed management, desalination
  • Decrease water demands, e.g. by increasing efficiency, reducing water losses, water recycling, changing irrigation practices

Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems

  • Develop planning/new investment requirements
  • Protect, including building sea walls, and beach nourishment
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP
Emma Mario
Country Officer
Government of Marshall Islands
Kaminaga Kaminaga
Project Coordinator
Location: 
Project Status: 

Lao PDR's Second National Communication - In Progress

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

Lao PDR faces significant threats from climate change, in part because 75 per cent of its population depends on natural resources for their livelihood. The government has expressed concern regarding the impacts of climate change on flooding and rainfall patterns, which are said to be increasing and becoming erratic. Floods and droughts historically have significantly impacted Lao PDR’s agriculture, forestry, water resources, health and economic growth. As such, these sectors have also been identified as priority areas for adaptation. Additional concerns are: a lack of capacity and knowledge with respect to climate modeling; a lack of scientific data on climate effects and potential impacts; low levels of public awareness; and a weak institutional setup that acts as a barrier to adaptation. Financial and capacity constraints are highlighted as major barriers to climate change action.

To view progress on Lao PDR's SNC click here.

Undefined
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (102.606842066 17.9630285285)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

Lao People's Democratic Republic is located in the Indochina Peninsular (Mekong Region), bordered by China to the North, Vietnam to the East, Cambodia to the South, and Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) to the West and Northwest respectively with population of just over 6.4 million (CIA, 2011). Lao PDR had a ranking of 122 of 169 on the human development index in 2010 (UNDP, 2010), putting it near the bottom of the list of countries that have achieved a medium level of human development. The country’s per capital annual income in 2010 was approximately US$986 (USDS, 2010). The country’s economy is highly dependent on agriculture, representing 30 per cent of GDP and employing approximately 75 per cent of the country’s population.

The country’s climate is tropical and monsoonal, characterized by a rainy season from May to November and a dry season from November to April (USDS, 2010).  In order to adapt to climate change a few projects based on assessed priority levels are in place including the project to strengthen the capacity if the national disaster management committees and the project to strengthen capacity of village forestry volunteers in forest planting, caring and management techniques as well as the use of village forests. Lao People's Democratic Republic has a total land area of approximately 236,800 km², 80 percent of which is mountainous. Mountains are found in the Northern region, the Annamite Chain (forming most of the eastern border of the country), and in the South, posing a significant natural buffer to storms that occur in the region. However, the remaining 20 percent of the country comprises mostly flat floodplains along the Mekong River. The lowest altitude of Lao People's Democratic Republic is 200 meters and highest is 2,880 meters. Lao People's Democratic Republic has a tropical climate, which is influenced by the southeast monsoon which causes significant rainfall and high humidity. The climate is divided into two distinct seasons: rainy season, or monsoon, from May to mid-October, followed by a dry season from mid-October to April. The average annual rainfall is about 1,300 – 3,000 mm. Average temperatures in the northern and eastern mountainous areas and the plateaus are 20°C , and in the plains 25-27°C.

Adaptation Needs and Priorities:

Lao PDR faces significant threats from climate change, in part because 75 per cent of its population depends on natural resources for their livelihood. The government has expressed concern regarding the impacts of climate change on flooding and rainfall patterns, which are said to be increasing and becoming erratic. Floods and droughts historically have significantly impacted Lao PDR’s agriculture, forestry, water resources, health and economic growth. As such, these sectors have also been identified as priority areas for adaptation (Sengchandala, 2010). Additional concerns are: a lack of capacity and knowledge with respect to climate modeling; a lack of scientific data on climate effects and potential impacts; low levels of public awareness; and a weak institutional setup that acts as a barrier to adaptation. Financial and capacity constraints are highlighted as major barriers to climate change action (DoE, 2000).


Knowledge of climate change issues has progressed over the past decade, but the barriers to implementation still largely remain. Capacity building at all levels of government would greatly support improved awareness and help generate accurate information and data on climate change and appropriate adaptation strategies in the country.

National Level Action:

Lao PDR submitted its First National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in November 2000. This document identifies raising awareness as one of the initial areas of focus for the country; the actual term “adaptation” only appears twice in the entire document, and is primarily referenced in relation to the need for a vulnerability and impact assessment of climate change risk. Subsequently, in 2008, Lao PDR established a National Steering Committee on Climate Change and a National Climate Change Office (Sengchandala, 2010). It also prepared a National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) that was submitted to the UNFCCC in May 2009. It is currently developing its Second National Communication with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

In March 2010, Lao PDR approved a National Strategy on Climate Change (NSCC). This framework document identifies seven priority areas for adaptation and mitigation: agriculture and food security; forestry and land use change; water resources; energy and transport; industry; urban development; and public health (Sengchandala, 2010). The NAPA forms a central component of the NSCC. An overarching goal of the NSCC was to ensure that climate change was streamlined into Lao’s Seventh National Socio-Economic Development Plan (2011-2015). The NAPA, NSCC and current Development Plan have greatly strengthened the policy framework for climate change work in Lao PDR and have served to build awareness of the issue at least among senior government officials in the country. Despite this progress, a weak institutional setup is still seen as significant barriers to adaptation. In particular, a lack of coordination between the UNFCCC National Focal Point, the Water Resource and Environment Administration and other line Ministries limits integration of climate change adaptation policies into sector strategies.

Current Adaptation Action:

Lao PDR is benefitting from a number of adaptation projects, with a smaller number of national projects compared to multi-country projects underway in the country. Its level of activity, though, is low compared to other East and Southeast Asian developing countries. National projects are primarily focused on water, agriculture and disaster risk management, and are funded by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Global Environment Facility (GEF), Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), Nordic Development Fund and UNDP. Regional projects active in Lao PDR also are primarily focused on addressing adaptation concerns in the water and agriculture sectors, but also address disaster risk management and the provision of climate information services. These regionally focused projects are funded by the governments of Australia, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and the United States.

Assessment:

While climate change is characterized as a high priority in Lao PDR, it appears that capacity is lacking for effective implementation. This observation is reflected in the fact that the country’s highest adaptation priority is simply education and capacity building. Strides have been made in improving this capacity through the development of a NAPA and NSCC, supported by the LDCF.

Ongoing adaptation initiatives within the country are addressing many of the adaptation priorities identified by the country. There is a considerable amount of work occurring with the water and agriculture sectors, at both the regional and national level, as well as within the area of policy formulation and risk reduction. Gaps in Lao PDR’s climate change activities include a dearth of initiatives within the forestry sector, which has been identified as a top adaptation priority for the country. Forestry initiative may exist within the country under the banner of mitigation projects, and it is possible that these projects would entail adaptation co-benefits. Additional gaps in current programming include energy and transport, urban areas, public health and gender. In addition, it appears that the country has a lack of climate change expertise or accurate data. Going forward, Lao PDR could greatly benefit from the sharing and internal development of scientific and technical capacity for climate change generally and adaptation specifically.

References:

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness

The government’s main goals for climate change activities in the future are:

  • increase public awareness activities on climate change
  • implement a GHG mitigation plan
  • regularly monitor and control climate change activities, for example data collection on temperature, rainfall, water flow, etc; and
  • cooperate with international agencies on climate change activities and related issues

Climate change is a new concept in the Lao PDR. The understanding of this subject–the science, mitigation aspects, impacts and adaptations, and its relevance to Lao PDR’s economy – are mainly restricted to a few institutions and individuals. The Lao National GHG Inventory Project is the first exposure of policy makers and technical persons to the climate change issues. Though this project has built limited capacity, a much wider dissemination of this issue and capacity building would be required before the country is in a position to have a stated or fully considered national perspective on policies and measures to respond to climate change.

However, climate change activities in the Lao PDR have been growing since its participation at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992. Since then, interactions with IPCC and participation at COP (conference of the parties), including the above-mentioned project, have encouraged limited national consultations and activities relevant to the UN FCCC. These consultations and activities, while not constituting stated government policy, give indications of national thought on issues relating to climate change. Lao PDR is signatory to the FCCC, and ratified the Convention on 5 January 1995.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP
Vichit Sayavongkhamdy
Country Officer
Government of Laos PDR
Syamphone Sengchandala
Project Coordinator
Location: 
Project Status: 

Kiribati's Second National Communication - In Progress

The creation of a National Communication offers countries the opportunity to contribute with technically sound studies and information that can be used for designing mitigation and adaptation measures, and project proposals that can and will help increase their resilience to the impacts of climate change. Activities generally include: V&A assessments, Greenhouse Gas Inventory preparation, Mitigation Analysis or Education, and awareness raising activities. The ultimate goal is the integration of climate change considerations into relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions.

The combination of its geographic location and economic situation makes Kiribati one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. Global temperature increase affects coral growth and sea level. In Kiribati, coastal erosion, sea water from storm surges inundating the land, extensive sea spray, and coral bleaching are being observed, impacts consistent with what to expect from climate change. These changes are adversely affecting the people’s livelihood. Climate change, through its impacts of sea level rise, are leading to coastal erosion, and more frequent and damaging storm surges which are expected to increasingly reduce vital agricultural productivity of crops such as pandanus varieties and coconut.

To view progress on Kiribati's SNC click here.

Undefined
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-157.491720548 1.85633100549)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Through improved identification of national circumstances, government agencies and other actors will increase their abilities to insulate at risk urban and rural populations from the adverse effects of climate change.
Financing Amount: 
420,000
Co-Financing Total: 
410,000
Project Details: 

Kiribati is situated in the Central Pacific Ocean and consists of 33 atolls with a total land area of about 800 sq km. The atolls have a maximum height of 3 to 4 m above mean sea level and support an estimated population of about 95,000 people.  Most people live a subsistence lifestyle, as the country is amongst the poorest and least developed countries in the world - having only a few natural resources, the main industries are tourism and the exports of Copra and fish. The combination of its geographic location and economic situation makes Kiribati one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change.

Global temperature increase affects coral growth and sea level. It is known that the heat content of the oceans has increased, and this could mean increase in internal energy (turbidity enhancement) of the oceans and/or increase in sea level. In Kiribati, coastal erosion, sea water from storm surges inundating the land, extensive sea spray, and coral bleaching are being observed - quite consistent with what to expect from climate change. These changes are adversely affecting the people’s livelihood. Climate change through its impacts of sea level rise leading to coastal erosion, and more frequent and damaging storm surges bounding on the edges of the land will reduce agricultural productivity such as of pandanus varieties, and coconut.

Adaptation Needs and Priorities

The Kiribati Government’s Initial National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change released in 1999 describes the vulnerabilities of the country, with a focus on the potential adverse impacts of sea level rise. The impacts include brackish water invasions, coastal erosion and reduced groundwater quality and quantity. Throughout the document, there in an emphasis on the melding of traditional practices in agriculture and extreme weather event preparation. This report includes a list of projects planned by the Kiribati government to address is adaptation needs, including (MESD, 1999):
 
  • Establishment of a climate change and sea level monitoring center.
  • Formation of an integrated coastal zone management plan.
  • Public awareness programming.
  • Education and training program.
  • Research and information dissemination.
  • Technology transfers program.
  • Water supplies program.
  • Alternative energy source program.

In its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), Kiribati builds upon these observations to identify nine key areas in which adaptation action is required. These nine key areas (as detailed in Table 3) include implementation in the areas of (MELAD, 2007):

  • Freshwater–A water resources adaptation project; and a well improvement project to improve public health;
  • Coastal zones–A coastal zone management program for adaptation; 
  • Risk reduction and monitoring–A strengthening of climate change information and monitoring program; upgrading of coastal defenses and causeways; and upgrading of meteorological services;
  • Marine resources–Coral monitoring, restoration and stock enhancement; and
  • Agriculture–Agricultural food crops development.
 
National Level Policies and Strategic Documents
 
The prominent documents of the Government of Kiribati that document is adaptation needs, priorities and action plans are its  Initial National Communication and its NAPA, the latter of which was released in 2007. As well, Kiribati has initiated efforts to mainstream climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction into its development processes through the Kiribati Adaptation Program, adoption of a Climate Change Adaptation Policy Note and a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy released in 2005. This strategy identifies eight priority areas for action: (1) integration of climate change adaptation into national planning and institutional capacity; (2) use of external financial and technical assistance; (3) population and resettlement; (4) government and services; (5) freshwater resources and supply systems; (6) coastal structures, land use and agricultural production; (7) marine resources; and (8) survivability and self-reliance
(Government of Kiribati, 2005).
 
As well, the Kiribati Development Plan (2008–2011) recognizes the potential adverse consequences of climate change for national development. In addition, Kiribati’s National Water Resource Policy completed in 2008 integrates consideration of the need to adapt to the impacts of climate change (KAP, n.d.).
 
Current Adaptation Action
 
The moderate number of adaptation projects, relative to other Pacific Island developing countries, are underway in Kiribati, most of which seek to build local capacity. The projects mainly focus on several sectors, namely: coastal zone management, water, meteorology, forestry and fisheries. Notably, Kiribati has hosted the Kiribati Adaptation Program since 2003. This program has progressively support understanding of climate change impacts, development of adaptation measures and the integration of adaptation into policy and planning. In its third phase, this initiative is supporting implementation of actions identified in Kiribati’s NAPA.
 
Proposed Adaptation Action
 
Within its NAPA, Kiribati identified nine priority projects for implementation. Some of these planned actions are now being supported through the project “Increasing Resilience to Climate Variability and Hazards” financed by the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF). 
 
References:

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Sustainable development and the integration of climate change concerns into medium- and long-term planning
  • Inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases
  • Measures contributing to addressing climate change
  • Research and systematic observation
  • Climate change impacts, adaptation measures and response strategies
  • Education, training and public awareness

Potential Adaptation Measures:

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Educational & outreach activities to change management practices to those suited to climate change
  • Switch to different cultivars

Water Resources

  • Decrease water demands, e.g. by increasing efficiency, reducing water losses, water recycling, changing irrigation practices
  • Improve or develop water management

Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems

  • Develop Integrated Coastal Zone Management
  • Protect, including building sea walls, and beach nourishment
  • Research/monitor the coastal ecosystem
Monitoring & Evaluation: 

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

Parties to the Convention must submit national reports on implementation of the Convention to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The required contents of national communications and the timetable for their submission are different for Annex I and non-Annex I Parties. This is in accordance with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the Convention.

The core elements of the national communications for both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties are information on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and details of the activities a Party has undertaken to implement the Convention. National communications usually contain information on national circumstances, vulnerability assessment, financial resources and transfer of technology, and education, training and public awareness.

Since 1994, governments have invested significant time and resources in the preparation, collection and validation of data on GHG emissions, and the COP has made determined efforts to improve the quality and consistency of the data, which are ensured by established guidelines for reporting. Non-Annex I Parties receive financial and technical assistance in preparing their national communications, facilitated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Contacts: 
UNDP
Yamil Bonduki
Coordinator, National Communications Support Programme (NCSP)
UNDP
Emma Mario
Country Officer
Government of Kiribati
Riibeta Abeta
Project Coordinator
Location: 
Project Status: