Taxonomy Term List
The project aims to assist Morocco in designing a framework for systematic integration of adaptation needs into development planning. The foundations for sustainable finance and institutional framework for adaptation planning will be established both at the national level and in selected regions. The sub-national activities include development of regional adaptation plans for five regions: Souss Massa, Marrakech Safi, Béni Mellal-Khenifra, Draa Tafilalet and Oriental regions.
Morocco, given its geographical location, climate, and coastline, is highly vulnerable to climate change. The projected impacts by 2050 will significantly affect key productive sectors and infrastructures of the Moroccan economy. Morocco started its national adaptation planning process in 2015 and developed a detailed NAP roadmap. Achieved in 2021, the NAP was formulated to provide an overall medium- and long-term adaptation strategy. The NAP outlines key actions and corresponding strategic objectives and is finalized after several consultations with key stakeholders and formally endorsed by the Government.
The Moroccan Climate Change Policy and the NDC (updated in 2021) outline sectoral adaptation goals and targets and highlight critical cross cutting pillars. Despite the various projects and initiatives on climate change adaptation and climate risk management executed in Morocco, climate change risks and adaptation needs are still not systematically considered in development planning and/or investment decisions, particularly at the regional level.
The project “Supporting the foundations for sustainable adaptation planning and financing in Morocco” builds upon the progress to date and helps operationalize the NAP with a strong focus on the subnational level and translating the strategic objectives into concrete actions. It also links to various initiatives on adaptation and climate risk management implemented in Morocco. In addition to the main project implementing partner the Ministry of Energy Transition and Sustainable Development, the project works with partners in government, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector.
The project aims to design a framework for systematic integration of adaptation needs into the country’s development planning building upon the existing foundation for climate change adaptation. The expected results are grouped around the three main outcomes and include:
- setting up of coordination and governance structure for adaptation at the national and regional levels;
- strengthening national and regional M&E system;
- improving communication and awareness on adaptation planning;
- mainstreaming gender sensitivity into government’s planning processes;
- assessing climate risks and vulnerabilities for key sectors in three regions;
- identifying adaptation options, assessed and prioritized in the three selected regions;
- elaborating five regional adaptation plans;
- sustainable financing of regional adaptation plans;
- strengthened private sector engagement and investment potential.
While Morocco has developed and executed various projects and initiatives on climate change adaptation and climate risk management, these were executed through isolated projects and in a piecemeal and disconnected fashion, each tackling a specific issue (water, agriculture, disaster risk, monitoring framework, data, capacity building etc.).
Today, climate change risks and adaptation needs are still not systematically considered when planning development and making investment decisions, particularly at the regional level. Morocco NAP-GCF project aims to design a framework for systematic integration of adaptation needs into the country’s development planning building upon the existing foundation for climate change adaptation.
Such a framework would enable the implementation of high-impact adaptation measures building on strengthened institutional arrangements for adaptation planning, including strategic coherent planning instruments aligned with national priorities and sustainable sources of adaptation finance.
The project inception workshop was held in March 2022 with the participation of all project stakeholders and the annual work plan has been approved including among others the development of guidelines for climate information collection and for climate change risk and vulnerability assessments at the regional level for key sectors (water, agriculture and infrastructure).
Outcome 1: The institutional framework for adaptation planning is strengthened and awareness is enhanced at national and regional levels.
Outcome 2: Regional adaptation plans (Territorial Plans against Global Warming) formulated for five vulnerable regions in Morocco and integration into regional development and land use plans facilitated.
Outcome 3: The foundations for sustainable finance for adaptation are strengthened.
The project builds on Serbia’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) commitments to advance medium and long-term adaptation planning in the Republic of Serbia with a National Adaptation Plan (NAP), providing support for iterative improvements to the NDCs under the enhanced transparency framework requirements. The project aims to enable the Government of Serbia to build and strengthen capacities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation, produce actionable climate risk and vulnerability assessments, and implement effective methods, tools and information systems to better inform decision-making on climate risks. Project activities address the main barriers to the integration of climate change adaptation into national, sectorial, and local government planning and budgeting, as well as support the formulation of financing strategies and mechanisms for the scaling up of medium- and long-term adaptation.
The "Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in the Republic of Serbia" project aims to increase the country’s capacity to address its climate change vulnerabilities. The project is proposed in two phases and focuses particularly in the areas related to the agriculture-water management nexus, and the sectors of energy infrastructure, transport infrastructure and construction.
Climate change impacts are already evident in Serbia. The IPCC AR5 has identified southeastern Europe, where Serbia is located, among the most vulnerable regions in terms of exposure to the negative effects of climate change. Climate change is expected to have adverse effects on the intensity and frequency of floods and droughts, and on the quality and quantity of yields of major crops. Serbia’s recent history of floods and natural disasters has shown that rural low-income communities are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to heightened water insecurity, increased health risks and reduced agricultural productivity.
The project builds on UNDP support to Serbia in February 2017 that resulted in a stocktaking report and a plan of action to advance the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process, validated by representatives of key sectors and the Ministry of Environmental Protection. The stocktaking exercise highlighted the existing weaknesses and demonstrated the prevailing barriers to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction planning in Serbia. The results confirmed that to adequately address climate change vulnerabilities, Serbia must overcome its current information gaps, capacity weaknesses, as well as a general lack of awareness of climate change adaptation – both at the national and sub-national levels. The report further identified that climate change is not integrated into existing policies, or their associated budget priorities.
The overall goal of the project is to reduce climate change related risks throughout Serbia by strengthening institutional and technical capacities that support integrated climate change adaptation planning and programming. This will be achieved through three outputs and related sub-outcomes across two phases:
- In the first phase, the emphasis is given to the development and setting up of the national mandate and steering mechanism for long-term climate change adaptation and capacity building for effective development of the NAP implementation strategy. The first phase also focuses on improved management of the adaptation related knowledge and data, addressing institutional capacity gaps and needs in specific sub-sectors and at all levels of governance, establishing a system for effective monitoring and reporting on climate change adaptation measures and actions;
- Building on the results and achievements from the first phase, the second project phase will focus on capacity building for setting up a sustainable financing strategy to support medium- and long-term climate change adaptation. Both project phases will be accompanied by a NAP and adaptation engagement and communications plan and concrete measures at both national and local levels.
In addition to the implementing partner, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, other project partners include the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Ministries in charge of energy, infrastructure and construction, local self-governments, Standing Conference of Towns and Municipalities, Chambers of Commerce, civil society and others.
- “Analysis of available climate and socio-economic information” conducted, establishing the current state-of-play and steps to be undertaken to build and strengthen institutional capacities for climate change adaptation;
- “Institutional capacities for climate change adaptation” report conducted, providing an overview on existing capacities and capacity building needs at the national and local self-government levels;
- “Existing policy, regulatory and institutional framework” report conducted and recommendations on improvement of specific policy and regulatory measures for climate change adaptation prepared;
- Reports on the impacts of climate change on key economic sectors such as agriculture and water management nexus, energy sector, construction and roads infrastructure, forestry and health with recommended adaptation measures;
- Economic assessment of the damage and losses caused by climate change for local self-governments conducted;
- Recommendations for better integration of nature-based solutions into the revised NDCs for Serbia provided;
- Representatives of the line ministries and other authorities participated in trainings, online workshops and consultative meetings on climate change adaptation.
- A series of press workshops held on the topic of climate change in Serbia, involving more than 500 stakeholders, at national and local levels.
Outcome 1: National mandate and steering mechanism in place for long-term climate change adaptation
Outcome 2: NAP implementation strategy developed
Outcome 3: System to monitor progress on adaptation strengthened and financing strategy for medium- and long-term climate change adaptation established.
Inception workshop for the project "Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in the Republic of Serbia“ was held together with presentation on funding sources on fight against climate change (2020)
Argentina is considered a high-income economy with a GDP of US$600 billion in 2016 and a population of over 44 million. In the last decades, the country has experienced marked growth in its agriculture and food sectors, accounting to 54 percent of its land use, and playing a strategic role in the socio-economic development of the country, with 54 percent of employment. Agriculture and animal husbandry and fragile ecosystems are also especially vulnerable to the intensification of extreme climate events, affecting the production and supply of food on a national and global scale. The country is considered a top emitter for agriculture, forestry and other land use sectors, contributing to 2.1 percent of the global emissions, and with domestic emissions made up of livestock (21.6 percent); agriculture (5.8 percent) and land-use change and forestry (9.8 percent).
Argentina’s agriculture is highly innovative and has much to offer in terms of win-win climate actions. It has great potential to scale up actions and production processes that will simultaneously cut mitigate emissions and enhance resilience to improve productivity. Argentina is one of the 100 countries being supported by UNDP’s Climate Promise to enhance their NDCs. The country is also part of FAO’s Sub-Regional Project on "Low Emission Livestock, a contribution to the Sustainable Development of the Sector in South America”, and many other projects related to climate management.
The government of Argentina considers the SCALA programme as strong support for the revision of its NAP in the agricultural sector, and to carry out actions that allow the implementation and achievement of the commitments established in the country’s NDC. The programme will leverage participatory methods to address Argentina’s institutional and financial barriers, which allow for a transformative shift in the agriculture and land use sectors. Moreover, to engage and mobilize the private sector to increase its investments in climate action. With the SCALA programme supporting Argentina over the next five years, UNDP and FAO will strive to foster a more inclusive multi-stakeholder process that eventually meets the needs of smallholder farmers, rural communities, women, and youth, who are the most vulnerable to climate change.
Argentina faces different types of barriers in achieving its adaptation and mitigation goals. There is a lack of planning for sustainable management of native forests `and agri-food systems. There are gaps in the articulation between managing bodies/ministries, as well as inefficient bureaucratic financing channels and there are difficulties for producers to access financing. The objective of the NAP in Argentina is to carry out the process in a participatory manner across managing bodies and ministries. The process requires economic efforts to ensure the full participation of all representatives and to support them in parallel processes for formulating provincial plans.
In 2016, Argentina submitted its nationally determined contribution (NDC) that identified several agriculture-related priorities. Argentina has prioritized the development of adaptative capacities and the promotion of agriculture’s strategic role as a solution to climate change. In 2020, the country signed the new United Nations Strategic Cooperation Framework (2021-2025) and confirmed its interest to push forward the agenda that seeks to enhance ambition and catalyze action for land-use and agriculture. Argentina submitted its second NDC in December 2020, ratifying a more ambitious commitment to the Paris Agreement and providing a specific and broader role to adaptation, with the national goal of decreasing 19 percent of its total GHG emissions by 2030. The country has committed to elaborate its Long-Term Climate Strategy by the end of 2021.
The key priorities communicated for the agriculture and land-use sector focus mainly on prioritization of adaptation, strengthening the role of agribusiness as a source of solutions to climate change, integrating agro-industrial production and encouraging the development of process and product technologies. To support the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process, Argentina is implementing the Readiness Project for the NAP Process, financed by the Green Climate Fund and implemented by UNDP.
Along with these actions, the country aims to strengths the implementation of Minimum Budgets for the Environmental Protection of Native Forests, as well as achieve a substantial reduction in the deforestation rate. To support this goal the country implements the National Forest Management Plan with Integrated Livestock (MBGI), the Forest Watershed Plans and Comprehensive Community Plans (PIC), and the national forest extension system and the Deforestation Early Warning System (SAT). By 2030, the country also expects to deepen the development of fire, flood, and drought prevention measures - of great importance for the agricultural, livestock and forestry sectors.
Costa Rica is in Central America and has a varied topography that includes coastal plains separated by rugged mountains, including over 100 volcanic cones and inhabits around 5 percent of the planet’s biodiversity. Costa Rica is among global leaders in responding to climate change, with a long history of environmental protection, sustainable development, and action on climate change mitigation. Costa Rica’s vulnerability to extreme climate events and natural hazards is a result of the presence of populations in areas prone to volcanic eruptions and unstable lands, degraded by wide-spread cattle ranching, or in poorly planned settlements prone to landslides and flooding. A total of 36 percent of Costa Rica’s land use is attributed to agriculture, and it accounts for 14 percent of the country’s employment.
The SCALA programme can contribute to strengthening market access for products developed through low-carbon value chains to help increase the capital flow to communities (at the farm level) that adopt technologies and help contribute to scaling up climate action. The SCALA programme will support Costa Rica in transforming how the agriculture and land use sectors operate and incorporating adaptation and mitigation measures. In addition to the support on soil management practices, SCALA in Cosa Rica will support the resilience of family farmers to cope with pathogens, so they have the resources to invest in sustainable low-carbon practices. The country is currently developing a road map for its National Adaptation Plan and aims to strengthen conservation initiatives and expand its environmental services payments program to include ecosystem-based adaptation. Costa Rica continues to promote renewable energies, stronger environmental management practices through agroforestry systems and watershed management, as well as tools for municipal-level land use planning to reduce the long-term vulnerabilities of its population and enhance its food security.
22 October 2021 - To learn more about how Costa Rica is scaling up its climate ambition in land use and agriculture to meet the targets of its NDC and related climate strategies, the SCALA programme sat down with the Minister of Agriculture and Livestock, Mr. Renato Alvarado to unpack the opportunities and challenges in this process as part of a new interview series.
Costa Rica has developed policies and prioritized implementing transformative action in value chains, however, knowledge remains a key barrier because transformative change requires the adoption of new technologies. A second barrier experienced in Costa Rica is the availability of financing mechanisms that reduce risks for different actors, including investors, in the value chain. Lastly, there is a need to strengthen the institutional frameworks that oversee these processes, mainly at the early stages. The COVID-19 pandemic was a huge challenge – like for many countries, but Costa Rica managed to keep the value chains in operation and reported growth in agricultural exports, while still maintaining adequate levels of supply to the national market during these challenging times. The pandemic exposed how valuable the agriculture sectors are and demonstrated the resilience of agricultural producers.
Costa Rica’s National Climate Change Adaptation Policy (2018-2030), states the priorities with respect to agricultural sustainable production, namely the 1) promotion of adaptation based on ecosystems outside the State's natural heritage, through the conservation of biodiversity in biological corridors, private reserves and farms under forest regime 2) promotion of water security in the face of climate change, through the protection and monitoring of sources and proper management of hydrological basins. The National Development Plan (2019-2022) reaffirmed the ambitious goal to promote a carbon neutral economy by 2021 and laid out strategies to promote renewable energy, reduce GHG emissions, and consider adaptation initiatives.
In 2016, Costa Rica submitted its first NDC. Costa Rica’s National Climate Change Adaptation Policy (2018-2030), as well as the National Decarbonization Plan (2018-2050) and the NAMA coffee, NAMA livestock, NAMA sugarcane and NAMA Musaceae (banana), reflect some of the country’s key agri-food chains, which are livestock, coffee, rice, Musaceae and cane sugar. The country’s NDC aims to consolidate an agricultural model that is based on sound approaches in existing policies and strategies. To date, the country has developed a National Low Carbon Livestock Strategy, a National Low-emission Coffee Strategy, and the Low Carbon Banana Strategy, which focus on reducing risks and vulnerabilities in these value chains.
Côte d’Ivoire is located in West Africa along the Gulf of Guinea with the Atlantic running along its southern coast. As one of the world’s top exporters of cocoa, palm oil, banana and cashews and with two-third of the actively working population is percent employed by the agriculture sectors, Côte d’Ivoire is vulnerable to variations in weather and climate, as well as external shocks in its export trade. Côte d’Ivoire has the second largest economy in West Africa. High rainfall in the south fuels a fertile agricultural industry, which contributes to 27 percent of country’s GDP. A heavy economic reliance on agriculture, in addition to continued environmental degradation, rising temperature, prolonged dry season and deforestation all contribute to the country’s vulnerability to climate change. In addition, agriculture contributes 12 percent of total GHG emissions with livestock contributing the largest proportion (63 percent).
To support the country in implementing these plans, the SCALA programme partnered with Côte d'Ivoire for the next four years. The SCALA programme will help Côte d'Ivoire accelerate the implementation of its NAP and pursue action to achieve the commitments outlined in its forthcoming NDC. The programme will work with government stakeholders to overcome barriers at the institutional, technical, and financial levels to support a transformative shift in the agriculture and land use sectors. Through the SCALA programme, FAO and UNDP will strive to create an inclusive multi-stakeholder process between institutions and partners in Côte d'Ivoire that will help fill gaps, improve capacities and reach the country’s climate targets.
Côte d'Ivoire has made considerable efforts to mainstream adaptation and mitigation priorities into its national development plans. However, there are different barriers at the institutional level impeding the achievement of adaptation goals, such as the absence of regulations governing the coordination of actions to combat climate change, and the lack of cooperation between the national and sub- national levels. As for mitigation goals, the absence of an intersectoral coordination mechanisms for the NDCs and the lack of a measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) framework are considered the main barriers. Regarding technical resources and knowledge, the limited availability of adequate and evidence-based information, inconsistency of existing data and insufficient research conducted on emission factors are considered as important constraints. Moreover, financial barriers are also viewed as considerable obstacles to achieve climate targets. For instance, the unavailability of specific resource mobilization strategy for climate change adaptation, the insufficient level of financial resources mobilized for mitigation, both internally and externally, and difficulties in accessing climate finance from external mechanisms. Lastly, there is low awareness of the private sector in climate risk assessments and investments in adaptation measures.
Côte d’Ivoire ratified the Paris Agreement in 2016 and submitted their first NDC the same year. The NDC intends to reconcile development and reduction of GHG emissions. Due to the country’s vulnerability to climate change impacts, especially in the key agricultural exports sector, adaptation is also a priority.
The revision of the NDC is ongoing, and the NAP process has been underway in Côte d’Ivoire since 2015. The adaptation planning is crucial in 11 identified priority sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change, including agriculture, fisheries, forestry, land use and gender as a cross-cutting theme. The second generation National Agricultural Investment Program 2017-2025 aims to increase added value of agricultural products; strengthen agricultural production systems that are respectful of the environment; and promote inclusive growth.
Along with the ongoing NDC submission, Côte d'Ivoire has several climate plans and policies in place, such as the National Strategy for Climate-Smart Agriculture 2018-25, National Strategic Plan for the Development of Livestock, Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014-20 and National Strategy for Forest Conservation, Rehabilitation and Extension, to build resilience and reduce GHG across key sectors.
The Arab Republic of Egypt is a developing country in Northern Africa. This terrain consists of a vast desert plateau that has a fresh water renewable resource - the River Nile and its Nile Valley and Delta. Most of Egypt’s population and infrastructure are concentrated in the Nile Delta and along the Mediterranean coast, which makes the country vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise, particularly inundation and saltwater intrusion. About 15 percent of the most fertile arable land in the Nile Delta is already negatively affected by sea level rise and saltwater intrusion. With this negative impact, climate change studies predict a reduction in productivity of two major crops in Egypt - wheat and maize – by 15 percent and 19 percent, respectively, by 2050. Nevertheless, agriculture is the biggest employer involving over 31.2 percent of the total population. The agriculture sector contributed 14 percent to the GDP in 2009 and contributes 10 percent of the country's total GHG emissions.
The Ministry of Environment and the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency has officially approved and cleared the implementation the SCALA programme in Egypt. A background desk review of relevant climate change plans and documents has been undertaken, as well as a baseline report has been produced. This will be further informed by the stocktaking and climate action review exercise for the identification and validation of climate actions with transformative potential in the AFOLU sectors.
Through initial consultations with the Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Agriculture & Land Reclamation, it has been recommended that the SCALA programme supports the NAP development process under the recently launched GCF-NAP Readiness project. SCALA deliverables therefore will be designed to serve as inputs to the NAP project through which Egypt’s overall NAP will be developed. Contributions will mostly be towards evidence generation through climate risk and vulnerability assessments, innovative climate research on water management and irrigation adaption measures, capacity needs assessment reports on disaster risk reduction and early warning mechanisms in AFOLU sectors, and environmental impact assessments of land use plans.
By supporting the preparation of National Adaption Plan Framework, which will target to address the mitigation and adaptation barriers, the SCALA programme in Egypt will contribute to the country’s long-term goal of decreasing climate vulnerability and building climate resilience of AFOLU sectors. By establishing a framework for improving institutional and technical capacity for climate change adaptation planning it will help the country enhance climate action needed by 2030. The programme will support assessments of climate risks and vulnerabilities, determining climate change mitigation and adaptation priorities, and integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation into national and sectoral planning and budgeting.
The main barriers towards implementation of mitigation and adaptation measures and progress in the agriculture, forests, and other land use (AFOLU) sectors are in institutional and technical capacity to undertake evidence generation through climate risk vulnerability assessments. Most policymakers and technical experts in the Ministries still require enhanced understanding of climate change impacts and the technical skills necessary to craft and implement appropriate CCA integration and interventions. There are institutional barriers related to the functioning of the Measuring, Reporting, and Verifying (MRV) systems on mitigation and adaptation measures and progress in the AFOLU sectors. Egypt plans to build institutional coordination and capacity on climate risks management and to undertake climate adaptation planning, as well as overcome the barrier of insufficient financial resources and budget allocations dedicated to adaptation actions.
Already, the government of Egypt has embarked on preparing a NAP framework; a process that involves assessing and addressing institutional and technical capacity gaps for adaptation planning and management of adaptation actions, national level climate risks and vulnerability assessments and identification of sectoral adaptation priorities, and mapping of mid- and long-term climate change adaptation financing options.
In 2011, a National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction was released. This strategy lays out the path to overcome the challenges raised by climate change and estimates the investment required to reach its strategic goals. Egypt ratified the Paris Agreement in June 2017 and submitted their nationally determined contribution (NDC), which focuses on the sustainability of agriculture, the environment, water resources, energy, and land management as priority areas.
Egypt’s NDC pledges to reduce its GHG emissions; particularly reducing CO2 emissions by 20 percent from the baseline emissions level of 250MtCO2 emissions by 2030. Each sector of the economy has set mitigation targets; particularly for the agriculture, forest, and other land-use sectors, the mitigation targets include recycling agricultural waste and manure and the implementation of a national MRV system. Additionally, the NDC outlines Adaptation Action Packages with specific adaptation goals for the most vulnerable sectors, including agriculture. Such adaptation actions include building an effective institutional system to manage climate change associated crises and disasters at the national level.
UNDP office in Egypt is implementing a Green Climate Fund (GCF)-financed National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Readiness project aiming to formulate and advance Egypt’s National Adaptation Plans Process. This NAP process targets to build/enhance climate resilience in all the sectors of the economy by improving institutional and technical capacity for climate change adaptation (CCA) planning, examining climate risks, determining CCA priorities, integrating CCA into national and sectoral planning and budgeting, and increasing investment in adaptation actions. This NAP process also targets to identify private sector actors with potential to invest in climate change actions. Already there is a large and fast-growing small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) sector and a large domestic market.
Ethiopia is a landlocked country in Northeast Africa and has a population of over 112 million people. Its agriculture sector plays a major role in the national economy, contributing to 34.5 percent of GDP in 2020. Smallholder farming accounts for approximately 95 percent of agricultural production and 85 percent of total employment. In Ethiopia, agriculture and land-use are high GHG emitting sectors with around 80 percent of domestic emissions. Ethiopia’s agriculture sector is extremely vulnerable to climate change due to its high dependence on natural resources, and relatively low adaptive capacity – especially in rural areas – to deal with frequently experienced extreme events and longer-term variability, including droughts and floods, rainfall variability and pest invasions.
Reports and Publications by country teams
The Government of Ethiopia aims to proactively pursue further integration of climate change adaptation in its development policies and strategies, including macroeconomic and sectoral policies at regional and local levels. In support of this target, the SCALA programme will leverage participatory methods to address Ethiopia’s institutional and financial barriers to mainstream climate change at all administrative levels, to allow for a transformative shift in their agriculture and land use sectors. Building on the capacity gaps identified in scoping exercises, the programme will seek to enhance institutional capacities of the country to support the management of climate budget tagging systems, to undertake climate finance and resource mobilization, and to engage and mobilize the private sector to increase its investments in climate action. It also intends to develop stronger knowledge and information sharing platforms for bridging the gap between national, regional and woreda level governance mechanisms. Additionally, the implementation of SCALA programme will support the establishment of enabling environment and de-risking instruments to engage and incentivize private sector investments in climate actions.
The expectation of undertaking such activities is that they will help the country accelerate its NDC and NAP implementation. With the SCALA programme supporting Ethiopia over the next five years, UNDP and FAO will strive to foster a more inclusive, multi-stakeholder process that meets the needs of smallholder farmers, rural communities, women, and youth, who are the most vulnerable to climate change.
Whilst Ethiopia has made strides in mainstreaming adaptation and mitigation priorities into its national agriculture development plans and projects, one of the main barriers to achieving adaptation and mitigation goals remains the limited understanding and technical capacity for implementing them at the local level. It was identified in the CRGE Strategy progress report that there is limited capacity at the local level to carry out climate risk and vulnerability assessments, gender analysis and assessments, and cost benefit analyses for prioritising adaptation and mitigation options.
Given SCALA’s programme objectives to achieve systems-level transformative change, the programme in consultation with Ethiopia’s Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance, and its Environment, Forest and Climate Change Commission (EFCCC), has identified livelihood-centred agro-ecological transitions as a priority. Preliminary work under SCALA has also identified entry points for catalysing transformative climate action in the agriculture and land use sector within selected agro-ecological zones (AEZ). For example, with the need for more gender-responsive climate risk analyses, the SCALA programme plans to carry out a gender analysis of selected value chains in vulnerable AEZs. This will include an appraisal of the cost and benefits of value chain-based interventions to spur inclusive climate action. Establishing a strong evidence base that is also rooted in local contexts would then set the foundation for designing a transformative climate action implementation plan at local levels, with a gender and social inclusion lens.
The Government of Ethiopia submitted its nationally determined contribution (NDC) to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2016, and formally submitted an updated NDC in July 2021. The updated NDC builds on, and is in line with, the country’s development goals as laid out in its Growth and Transformation Plan II, its Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) Strategy, the emerging Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy, the Green Legacy Initiative, and Ethiopia’s 10-year Development Plan. The bulk of Ethiopia’s NDC adaptation commitments are focused on the agriculture and land use sectors, with priority areas including livestock diversification, drought-resistant animal breeding, rangeland management, crop, and livestock insurance. Ethiopia formulated its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) in 2017, along with a NAP Implementation Roadmap that further categorized the short-term adaptation priorities (such as capacity building, strengthening the enabling environment and promoting research), as well as long-term sector-specific priorities.
In its final National Adaptation Plan (NAP-ETH, 2019), Ethiopia prioritized adaptation in the sectors considered most vulnerable to climate change, namely: agriculture, forestry, health, transport, energy, industry, water and urban. Within these sectors, 18 adaptation options are identified for implementation at all administrative levels, recognizing the considerable diversity in context and vulnerability across Ethiopia’s regions and social groups. Ethiopia is working to integrate climate information into planning and decision-making for development interventions, and prioritizing climate resilience across policies to improve the adaptive capacity at national/federal, regional and Woreda levels. The plan is guided by the principles of participation, coherent interventions, stakeholder empowerment, gender sensitivity, equitable implementation, and partnership, especially with the private sector.
Located in West Africa, Senegal has a steadily growing economy over recent years. However, poverty in Senegal is still prevalent in rural areas, where roughly 60 percent of the population resides. The other 40 percent of the population resides in urban areas, where the majority live in rapidly growing urban suburbs. Low agricultural production, limited capacity of the economy to create sustainable jobs, and inadequate resource allocation for social services contribute to poverty. While the agriculture, livestock and fishery sectors are contributing to food and nutrition security and representing 60 percent of the Senegalese rural labor force, these sectors are vulnerable to several climate-related impacts, such as drought, locust invasion, flooding, sea-level rise, coastal erosion and related health epidemics, as well as bush fires.
Reports and Publications of relevance to Country Teams
Senegal has a strong motivation to enhance its climate strategies and create more sustainable production patterns and food systems. The country plans to achieve its climate objectives in terms of land use and agriculture through the transformation of agri-food systems. The systemic approach adopted by the SCALA programme with all stakeholders constitutes an innovative approach to overcome obstacles and help define actionable priorities. Through fostering stakeholder commitments, to build institutional, financial and technical capacities and foster transformation actions such as agroecology, improving crop varieties, agroforestry and the importance of operationalizing the concept of agripreneur, the SCALA programme will further support the government of Senegal in accessing sustainable solutions, by considering cross-cutting issues and promoting synergies between ongoing initiatives.
6 November 2021 - The programme was officially launched during a two-day inception workshop in September 2021, where key stakeholders discussed SCALA’s activities and objectives to be implemented over the next four years. The discussion centered on the agroecological solutions (such as composting), improving crop varieties, agroforestry and the importance of operationalizing the concept of “agripreneur”. To learn more about the national priorities discussed, the SCALA programme sat down with two technical advisers from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Equipment, Mr. Boubacar Drame and Mr. Younoussa Mballo, to unpack the opportunities and objectives of the programme.
The main barriers towards the implementation of mitigation and adaptation measures on an institutional level are the low level of integrating NDC and NAP priorities in the planning and budgeting process and the lack of coordination and capacity in intersectoral planning. On a technical level, these sectors are facing major challenges, such as the availability of data and information to actors and the need to strengthen the information system measures for the effective monitoring and evaluation of transformative climate mitigation and adaptation actions. Senegal can achieve its goals to reduce GHG emissions and integrate adaptation and mitigation priorities with international community support and sustainable funding. The country can also benefit from transferring environmentally friendly technologies and strengthening institutional and human capacities in its climate change agenda.
Senegal developed a National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2006 and submitted an INDC in 2015, which outlined the country’s plans for mitigation and adaptation. The NDC was recently revised and submitted ahead of COP26 in 2021, while sectoral NAPs are currently under development. The Plan for an Emerging Senegal (Plan Sénégal Emergent) reflects the strong political will for development based on more sustainable production patterns and food systems. Since 2019, various actors involved in agroecology in Senegal have come together under the DyTAES (Dynamique pour une Transition AgroEcologique au Sénégal) framework to contribute to the reflections of the Senegalese government to build an agroecological transition policy.
In Senegal, the agriculture sector represents 36 percent of its GHG emissions followed by land use change and forestry (22 percent). As communicated in the NDC, the emissions from the agriculture sector will increase gradually and steadily, until 2030. Henceforth, to reduce emissions, Senegal will first create synergies between local community stakeholders and the private sector to reinforce acquired knowledge and build on good practices in terms of mitigation and adaptation to scale up action.
Strongly threatened by climate change, Senegal aims to enhance adaptation and mitigation measures in the agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry sectors. Particularly in the crop production sector, the mitigation priorities are focused on the Intensive Rice Cultivation System, composting and assisted natural regeneration. Regarding adaptation priorities, the country will focus on vulnerable ecosystems and will work with vulnerable populations to increase their resilience to climate change impacts. Senegal will concentrate on promoting agriculture-livestock-agroforestry production systems, sustainable land management, use of adapted varieties, agriculture insurance, generic improve of species and animal health, promote sustainable aquaculture and restoration of mangroves field.
Uganda experiences the effects of climate change in the form of increased temperatures, frequent disease outbreaks and insect infestations, disrupted rainfall patterns, and frequent floods and droughts. While Uganda has progressively undergone social and economic growth and transformation, consequently reducing its poverty rate by 23 percent over the last two decades, sustained gains will require continued investments in agriculture, and the inclusive participation in the economic growth of women as well the population reported poor in 2019. With 81 percent of the population engaged in rain-fed subsistence farming for food and cash income, the country’s reliance on rain-fed agriculture remains a risk to economic growth, income of farmers, as well as export earnings. Agriculture contributes up to 40 percent of Uganda’s total GDP and over 90 percent of the country’s foreign exchange earnings. The agriculture sector contributes to 27 percent of emissions, followed by the land-use and forestry sector with approximately 60 percent of emissions.
Uganda identifies barriers, solutions, and investment opportunities for gender-responsive agri-food value chains in the cattle corridor
26 October 2021 - The SCALA team sat down with Mr. John Chrysostom Birantana, Senior Principal Policy Analyst at the Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries to understand the challenges related to scaling up both climate change adaptation and mitigation in the cattle corridor landscape, and how the country plans to overcome those barriers to achieve its ambitious climate agenda.
Uganda experiences different types of barriers in achieving its agriculture climate goals mainly in the cattle corridor and the agriculture and land use sectors. Smallholder farmers and particularly women, youth and poorer households are facing challenges to implement climate adaptation and mitigation measures such as erratic food prices, limited knowledge and skills for climate smart agriculture, and lack in transportation and processing infrastructure. Moreover, limited agricultural insurance schemes, inadequate access to finance and limited access and control of land and other production resources makes it hard for them to invest in climate action plans. The limited integration and coordination mechanisms among relevant actors and policy gap related to food quality and safety are the main challenges faced at a governance level.
Uganda was part of the FAO and UNDP supported Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP-Ag) Programme from 2015-2020, and developed a gender-responsive National Adaptation Plan (NAP) for the agriculture sector and its monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework which now requires support for implementation. Uganda has undertaken steps to implement the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and increase its ambition. The country developed its latest NDC through inclusive and participatory processes and aligned the NDC with its climate-resilient, long-term emission strategy. Most significantly is Uganda’s formulation of the National Climate Change Act 2021 to give the force of law to the Paris Agreement.
Based on the first and updated interim NDC, Uganda continues to prioritize adaptation as the first response to climate change and aims to strengthen mitigation actions, starting with the expansion of extension services and climate-related information. The country is committed to working on reducing climate change vulnerability and addressing climate actions in several key economic sectors including energy, waste, and industrial processes and product use (IPPU). As well the agriculture and livestock, forestry, sustainable land management (SLM), and sustainable natural resources management (mainly wetlands and natural forests restoration, open water bodies protection), are considered as the country’s greatest source of emissions. The country will scale up to increase resilience and adaptability at the community level and leverage synergies with the county’s land-based mitigation goals.
Climate change is recognized as one of the challenges which compounds inherent vulnerabilities in the Caribbean; it could significantly increase the risk of hurricanes and storms and threaten the region’s development. Increasing coastal erosion and severe coral reef bleaching events in 2005 and 2010 bear witness to this. Tourism and agriculture will be among the sectors most negatively impacted by these climatic changes. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirms that small islands are highly vulnerable to climatic and non-climatic stressors, with sea level rise and temperature rise among the most insidious threats for coastal flooding and erosion, ecosystem degradation and loss of livelihoods. Further, inadequate awareness, information, technical and policy capacity, and limited funding availability for informing and formulating a low-emissions development strategy are among the reasons that it has been difficult to direct and guide climate change mitigation investments in the Caribbean. In sum, climate change threatens to undermine decades of progress and effort. As a result, it is a focal area for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), being explicitly identied in goal 13 but also encompassing other goals.
Recognising that persistent climate-related liabilities will continue to undermine their potential for sustainable development, Caribbean countries are focusing their post-2015 long-term sustainable development strategies on the principles of climate risk management and resilience building – understood as market transformations based on “adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their eects or impacts.” Studies have shown that cost-effective adaptation and risk mitigation solutions can help to avoid up to 90% of expected losses. The Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership (J-CCCP) brings together policy makers, experts and representatives of communities to encourage policy innovation for climate technology incubation and diffusion. By doing so, the initiative aims to ensure that barriers to the implementation of climate-resilient technologies are addressed and overcome in a participatory and efficient manner. Policy instruments such as Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) provide tailored frameworks to expand access to clean energy and to prioritise adaptation measures. As a result, concrete mitigation and adaptation will be implemented on the ground, in line with countries' long-term strategies.
Building upon and supported by the NAMAs and NAPs, the partnership will support the incubation of climate technology into targeted public sectors, private industries, and community groups and enterprises so that green, low-emission climate-resilient technologies can be tested, refined, adopted, and sustained as a practical measure to enhance national, sub-national and community level resilience. These technologies will help reduce the dependence on fossil fuel imports, setting the region on a low emission development path; as well as improve the region’s ability to respond to climate risks and opportunities in the long-run, through resilient development approaches that go beyond disaster response to extreme events. The Partnership will include the following eight Caribbean countries: the Belize, Commonwealth of Dominica, Grenada, the republic of Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and the Republic of Suriname. The Government of Japan has provided financial and technical support for this project, with UNDP acting in the capacity of implementing partner.
Training & Tools
Plans and policies of relevance to NAPs for Non-Least Developed Countries (non-LDCs)
Assessments and Background Documents
Project Brief / Fact Sheet
Please also view the Project's Mid-term Evaluation Report.
Over the course of three days, J-CCCP mounted a multi-media gallery to showcase the impact of J-CCCP's work over the project lifetime. The day prior, the project visited J-CCCP pilot projects in Saint Lucia where technology or knowledge from Japan has been transfered.
J-CCCP invited farmers, agricultural practitioners, regional agencies and NGOs who work in agriculture to join nature farming and research experts from Japan to knowledge share. This event builds on the 19 agriculture-focused pilot projects implemented by J-CCCP and the study tour to Japan, completed in 2018.
UNDP's J-CCCP is supporting the attendance of 11 youth who have played key roles in advancing climate action in the region. Their participation builds on the 2017 Youth Climate Change Conference. Now, many of these youth have come together to create a NGO - Youth Climate Change Activists where they actively advocate for increased action among peers and decision makers.
Over thirty representatives from nine Caribbean countries met in Kingstown, St. Vincent and the Grenadines to better position themselves to access funding for climate change mitigation.
Representatives of the Governments of Saint Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines gathered at UN House in Barbados to present their National Adaption Plans (NAPs) and priorities to members of the donor community who are active in the Caribbean. The following day, they were joined by colleagues from Jamaica and Grenada where they had the opportunity to share ideas, experiences and lessons learned surrounding their NAP process.
More than 100 climate scientists, researchers and negotiators from across the Caribbean and the world gathered at the Hilton Hotel in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad from October 9 to 12, 2017, to highlight the region’s climate change adaptation successes at the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) International Conference on Climate Change for the Caribbean.
Caribbean and Japanese youth have put forward their recommendations for climate-smart actions for the region following two days of intense dialogue between October 10-11, 2017 at the third staging of the Youth Climate Change Conference at the Jamaica Conference Centre.
Representatives from twenty-six countries in the Latin America and Caribbean countries attended the regional workshop on national adaptation plans (NAPs), held in San Jose, Costa Rica, from 4 to 7 September, 2017.
J-CCCP provided climate change training to more than 30 journalists from across the region. The two-day training seminar enabled media practitioners to learn and share best practices on climate change issues including, climate change science, economics and policy as well as the role of media entities in communicating on climate change.
As St. Vincent and the Grenadines pursues the development of a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) in the transportation sector, stakeholders gathered to consult on the process.
Stakeholders, some of whom took part in data collection for the study, gathered to hear the results of a knowledge, attitudes and practices study conducted in St. Vincent and the Grenadines in December, 2016. Participants also assisted with the development of campaign approaches and committed to supporting campaign implementation.
J-CCCP supported the National Climate Change Office of Belize in the development of a national communications plan for climate change. This support was in the form of a workshop where stakeholders from key sectors across the country fed into the development of the plan.
In April 2016, representatives from regional organisations gathered in St. Lucia to map synergies and actions between development partners and the Project relating to NAPs, NAMAs and knowledge management and communications. Organisations in attendance included: CARDI, CARICOM, CEDMA, CCCCC, CYEN, CIMH, CARPHA, and PANOS, among others. For NAP and NAMA development and pilot projects, organisations were asked to identify stages at which each organisation may be able to lend support based on their expertise, the specific nature of the assistance and how additional funding could be leveraged. Participants also contributed to plans under outcome 3, including policy events, study tours and campaigns and noted that the exercise was useful in order to break a trend of working in silos.-NAMA training
J-CCCP partnered with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Regional Collaboration Centre (UNFCCC RCC), the UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building (LECB) Programme and local Ministries in the months of June and September to conduct two-day training seminars in Belize, Grenada, Guyana, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Suriname. The seminars were designed to support the development of climate mitigation actions, including Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). Approximately two hundred persons were trained in total.
Representatives from 10 Caribbean countries, including J-CCCP’s 8 beneficiary countries, met in Grenada’s capital of St. Georges to discuss strategies to prepare for the impact of climate change. Following Grenada’s final consultation on its National Adaptation Plan (NAP), they were able to share lessons from their experience of national adaptation planning, including some key topics such as political buy-in, coordination, integration of the sectoral plan, climate finance with peers through this two-day event. The NAP Assembly was co-hosted by Grenada’s Ministry of Education, Human Resource Development and the Environment; the UNDP Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership (J-CCCP); and the NAP Global Network.
J-CCCP supported the National Climate Change Office of Belize in the development of a country-wide communications strategy. This workshop saw Communications Professionals from Belizean Ministries, CBOs, NGOs and the media gather to have inputs into the strategy. The Project will focus its efforts on implementing the initial stage of the strategy with support from other local stakeholders.
Belize & Guyana Initiate NAP Process
J-CCCP Pilot Project Launched in The Grenadines
J-CCCP Partners with the Belize National Climate Change Office to Launch Feel the Change Campaign
J-CCCP Supports Study on Biogas and Renewable Energy from Biomass and Organic Waste in Belize