Taxonomy Term List

SCALA Argentina

Argentina is considered a high-income economy with a GDP of US$600 billion in 2016 and a population of over 44 million. In the last decades, the country has experienced marked growth in its agriculture and food sectors, accounting to 54 percent of its land use, and playing a strategic role in the socio-economic development of the country, with 54 percent of employment. Agriculture and animal husbandry and fragile ecosystems are also especially vulnerable to the intensification of extreme climate events, affecting the production and supply of food on a national and global scale. The country is considered a top emitter for agriculture, forestry and other land use sectors, contributing to 2.1 percent of the global emissions, and with domestic emissions made up of livestock (21.6 percent); agriculture (5.8 percent) and land-use change and forestry (9.8 percent). 

Level of Intervention: 
POINT (-65.039062495536 -36.796089507293)
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Argentina’s agriculture is highly innovative and has much to offer in terms of win-win climate actions. It has great potential to scale up actions and production processes that will simultaneously cut mitigate emissions and enhance resilience to improve productivity. Argentina is one of the 100 countries being supported by UNDP’s Climate Promise to enhance their NDCs. The country is also part of FAO’s Sub-Regional Project on "Low Emission Livestock, a contribution to the Sustainable Development of the Sector in South America, and many other projects related to climate management.

The government of Argentina considers the SCALA programme as strong support for the revision of its NAP in the agricultural sector, and to carry out actions that allow the implementation and achievement of the commitments established in the country’s NDC. The programme will leverage participatory methods to address Argentina’s institutional and financial barriers, which allow for a transformative shift in the agriculture and land use sectors. Moreover, to engage and mobilize the private sector to increase its investments in climate action. With the SCALA programme supporting Argentina over the next five years, UNDP and FAO will strive to foster a more inclusive multi-stakeholder process that eventually meets the needs of smallholder farmers, rural communities, women, and youth, who are the most vulnerable to climate change.


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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Argentina faces different types of barriers in achieving its adaptation and mitigation goals. There is a lack of planning for sustainable management of native forests `and agri-food systems. There are gaps in the articulation between managing bodies/ministries, as well as inefficient bureaucratic financing channels and there are difficulties for producers to access financing. The objective of the NAP in Argentina is to carry out the process in a participatory manner across managing bodies and ministries. The process requires economic efforts to ensure the full participation of all representatives and to support them in parallel processes for formulating provincial plans.   

Country Climate Plans: 

In 2016, Argentina submitted its nationally determined contribution (NDC) that identified several agriculture-related priorities. Argentina has prioritized the development of adaptative capacities and the promotion of agriculture’s strategic role as a solution to climate change. In 2020, the country signed the new United Nations Strategic Cooperation Framework (2021-2025) and confirmed its interest to push forward the agenda that seeks to enhance ambition and catalyze action for land-use and agriculture. Argentina submitted its second NDC in December 2020, ratifying a more ambitious commitment to the Paris Agreement and providing a specific and broader role to adaptation, with the national goal of decreasing 19 percent of its total GHG emissions by 2030. The country has committed to elaborate its Long-Term Climate Strategy by the end of 2021.

The key priorities communicated for the agriculture and land-use sector focus mainly on prioritization of adaptation, strengthening the role of agribusiness as a source of solutions to climate change, integrating agro-industrial production and encouraging the development of process and product technologies. To support the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process, Argentina is implementing the Readiness Project for the NAP Process, financed by the Green Climate Fund and implemented by UNDP.

Along with these actions, the country aims to strengths the implementation of Minimum Budgets for the Environmental Protection of Native Forests, as well as achieve a substantial reduction in the deforestation rate. To support this goal the country implements the National Forest Management Plan with Integrated Livestock (MBGI), the Forest Watershed Plans and Comprehensive Community Plans (PIC), and the national forest extension system and the Deforestation Early Warning System (SAT). By 2030, the country also expects to deepen the development of fire, flood, and drought prevention measures - of great importance for the agricultural, livestock and forestry sectors.

SCALA Costa Rica

Costa Rica is in Central America and has a varied topography that includes coastal plains separated by rugged mountains, including over 100 volcanic cones and inhabits around 5 percent of the planet’s biodiversity. Costa Rica is among global leaders in responding to climate change, with a long history of environmental protection, sustainable development, and action on climate change mitigation. Costa Rica’s vulnerability to extreme climate events and natural hazards is a result of the presence of populations in areas prone to volcanic eruptions and unstable lands, degraded by wide-spread cattle ranching, or in poorly planned settlements prone to landslides and flooding. A total of 36 percent of Costa Rica’s land use is attributed to agriculture, and it accounts for 14 percent of the country’s employment. 

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The SCALA programme can contribute to strengthening market access for products developed through low-carbon value chains to help increase the capital flow to communities (at the farm level) that adopt technologies and help contribute to scaling up climate action. The SCALA programme will support Costa Rica in transforming how the agriculture and land use sectors operate and incorporating adaptation and mitigation measures. In addition to the support on soil management practices, SCALA in Cosa Rica will support the resilience of family farmers to cope with pathogens, so they have the resources to invest in sustainable low-carbon practices. The country is currently developing a road map for its National Adaptation Plan and aims to strengthen conservation initiatives and expand its environmental services payments program to include ecosystem-based adaptation. Costa Rica continues to promote renewable energies, stronger environmental management practices through agroforestry systems and watershed management, as well as tools for municipal-level land use planning to reduce the long-term vulnerabilities of its population and enhance its food security.


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News and Updates: 
Costa Rica prioritizes transformative climate practices in its agri-food chains

22 October 2021 - To learn more about how Costa Rica is scaling up its climate ambition in land use and agriculture to meet the targets of its NDC and related climate strategies, the SCALA programme sat down with the Minister of Agriculture and Livestock, Mr. Renato Alvarado to unpack the opportunities and challenges in this process as part of a new interview series.

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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Costa Rica has developed policies and prioritized implementing transformative action in value chains, however, knowledge remains a key barrier because transformative change requires the adoption of new technologies. A second barrier experienced in Costa Rica is the availability of financing mechanisms that reduce risks for different actors, including investors, in the value chain. Lastly, there is a need to strengthen the institutional frameworks that oversee these processes, mainly at the early stages. The COVID-19 pandemic was a huge challenge – like for many countries, but Costa Rica managed to keep the value chains in operation and reported growth in agricultural exports, while still maintaining adequate levels of supply to the national market during these challenging times. The pandemic exposed how valuable the agriculture sectors are and demonstrated the resilience of agricultural producers.

Country Climate Plans: 

Costa Rica’s National Climate Change Adaptation Policy (2018-2030), states the priorities with respect to agricultural sustainable production, namely the 1) promotion of adaptation based on ecosystems outside the State's natural heritage, through the conservation of biodiversity in biological corridors, private reserves and farms under forest regime 2) promotion of water security in the face of climate change, through the protection and monitoring of sources and proper management of hydrological basins. The National Development Plan (2019-2022) reaffirmed the ambitious goal to promote a carbon neutral economy by 2021 and laid out strategies to promote renewable energy, reduce GHG emissions, and consider adaptation initiatives.  

In 2016, Costa Rica submitted its first NDC. Costa Rica’s National Climate Change Adaptation Policy (2018-2030), as well as the National Decarbonization Plan (2018-2050) and the NAMA coffee, NAMA livestock, NAMA sugarcane and NAMA Musaceae (banana), reflect some of the country’s key agri-food chains, which are livestock, coffee, rice, Musaceae and cane sugar. The country’s NDC aims to consolidate an agricultural model that is based on sound approaches in existing policies and strategies. To date, the country has developed a National Low Carbon Livestock Strategy, a National Low-emission Coffee Strategy, and the Low Carbon Banana Strategy, which focus on reducing risks and vulnerabilities in these value chains.

SCALA Cote D'Ivoire

Côte d’Ivoire is located in West Africa along the Gulf of Guinea with the Atlantic running along its southern coast. As one of the world’s top exporters of cocoa, palm oil, banana and cashews and with two-third of the actively working population is percent employed by the agriculture sectors, Côte d’Ivoire is vulnerable to variations in weather and climate, as well as external shocks in its export trade. Côte d’Ivoire has the second largest economy in West Africa. High rainfall in the south fuels a fertile agricultural industry, which contributes to 27 percent of country’s GDP. A heavy economic reliance on agriculture, in addition to continued environmental degradation, rising temperature, prolonged dry season and deforestation all contribute to the country’s vulnerability to climate change. In addition, agriculture contributes 12 percent of total GHG emissions with livestock contributing the largest proportion (63 percent). 


Level of Intervention: 
POINT (-5.3118896546725 8.0592309607409)
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To support the country in implementing these plans, the SCALA programme partnered with Côte d'Ivoire for the next four years. The SCALA programme will help Côte d'Ivoire accelerate the implementation of its NAP and pursue action to achieve the commitments outlined in its forthcoming NDC. The programme will work with government stakeholders to overcome barriers at the institutional, technical, and financial levels to support a transformative shift in the agriculture and land use sectors. Through the SCALA programme, FAO and UNDP will strive to create an inclusive multi-stakeholder process between institutions and partners in Côte d'Ivoire that will help fill gaps, improve capacities and reach the country’s climate targets.


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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Côte d'Ivoire has made considerable efforts to mainstream adaptation and mitigation priorities into its national development plans. However, there are different barriers at the institutional level impeding the achievement of adaptation goals, such as the absence of regulations governing the coordination of actions to combat climate change, and the lack of cooperation between the national and sub- national levels. As for mitigation goals, the absence of an intersectoral coordination mechanisms for the NDCs and the lack of a measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) framework are considered the main barriers. Regarding technical resources and knowledge, the limited availability of adequate and evidence-based information, inconsistency of existing data and insufficient research conducted on emission factors are considered as important constraints. Moreover, financial barriers are also viewed as considerable obstacles to achieve climate targets. For instance, the unavailability of specific resource mobilization strategy for climate change adaptation, the insufficient level of financial resources mobilized for mitigation, both internally and externally, and difficulties in accessing climate finance from external mechanisms. Lastly, there is low awareness of the private sector in climate risk assessments and investments in adaptation measures.


Country Climate Plans: 

Côte d’Ivoire ratified the Paris Agreement in 2016 and submitted their first NDC the same year. The NDC intends to reconcile development and reduction of GHG emissions. Due to the country’s vulnerability to climate change impacts, especially in the key agricultural exports sector, adaptation is also a priority.

The revision of the NDC is ongoing, and the NAP process has been underway in Côte d’Ivoire since 2015. The adaptation planning is crucial in 11 identified priority sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change, including agriculture, fisheries, forestry, land use and gender as a cross-cutting theme. The second generation National Agricultural Investment Program 2017-2025 aims to increase added value of agricultural products; strengthen agricultural production systems that are respectful of the environment; and promote inclusive growth.

Along with the ongoing NDC submission, Côte d'Ivoire has several climate plans and policies in place, such as the National Strategy for Climate-Smart Agriculture 2018-25, National Strategic Plan for the Development of Livestock, Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014-20 and National Strategy for Forest Conservation, Rehabilitation and Extension, to build resilience and reduce GHG across key sectors.



The Arab Republic of Egypt is a developing country in Northern Africa. This terrain consists of a vast desert plateau that has a fresh water renewable resource - the River Nile and its Nile Valley and Delta. Most of Egypt’s population and infrastructure are concentrated in the Nile Delta and along the Mediterranean coast, which makes the country vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise, particularly inundation and saltwater intrusion. About 15 percent of the most fertile arable land in the Nile Delta is already negatively affected by sea level rise and saltwater intrusion. With this negative impact, climate change studies predict a reduction in productivity of two major crops in Egypt - wheat and maize – by 15 percent and 19 percent, respectively, by 2050. Nevertheless, agriculture is the biggest employer involving over 31.2 percent of the total population.  The agriculture sector contributed 14 percent to the GDP in 2009 and contributes 10 percent of the country's total GHG emissions. 

Level of Intervention: 
POINT (29.102783190725 26.326248946066)
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The Ministry of Environment and the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency has officially approved and cleared the implementation the SCALA programme in Egypt. A background desk review of relevant climate change plans and documents has been undertaken, as well as a baseline report has been produced. This will be further informed by the stocktaking and climate action review exercise for the identification and validation of climate actions with transformative potential in the AFOLU sectors.

Through initial consultations with the Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Agriculture & Land Reclamation, it has been recommended that the SCALA programme supports the NAP development process under the recently launched GCF-NAP Readiness project. SCALA deliverables therefore will be designed to serve as inputs to the NAP project through which Egypt’s overall NAP will be developed. Contributions will mostly be towards evidence generation through climate risk and vulnerability assessments, innovative climate research on water management and irrigation adaption measures, capacity needs assessment reports on disaster risk reduction and early warning mechanisms in AFOLU sectors, and environmental impact assessments of land use plans.

By supporting the preparation of National Adaption Plan Framework, which will target to address the mitigation and adaptation barriers, the SCALA programme in Egypt will contribute to the country’s long-term goal of decreasing climate vulnerability and building climate resilience of AFOLU sectors. By establishing a framework for improving institutional and technical capacity for climate change adaptation planning it will help the country enhance climate action needed by 2030. The programme will support assessments of climate risks and vulnerabilities, determining climate change mitigation and adaptation priorities, and integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation into national and sectoral planning and budgeting.


Project Status: 
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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDG 13 - Climate Action

The main barriers towards implementation of mitigation and adaptation measures and progress in the agriculture, forests, and other land use (AFOLU) sectors are in institutional and technical capacity to undertake evidence generation through climate risk vulnerability assessments. Most policymakers and technical experts in the Ministries still require enhanced understanding of climate change impacts and the technical skills necessary to craft and implement appropriate CCA integration and interventions. There are institutional barriers related to the functioning of the Measuring, Reporting, and Verifying (MRV) systems on mitigation and adaptation measures and progress in the AFOLU sectors. Egypt plans to build institutional coordination and capacity on climate risks management and to undertake climate adaptation planning, as well as overcome the barrier of insufficient financial resources and budget allocations dedicated to adaptation actions.

Already, the government of Egypt has embarked on preparing a NAP framework; a process that involves assessing and addressing institutional and technical capacity gaps for adaptation planning and management of adaptation actions, national level climate risks and vulnerability assessments and identification of sectoral adaptation priorities, and mapping of mid- and long-term climate change adaptation financing options. 

Country Climate Plans: 

In 2011, a National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction was released. This strategy lays out the path to overcome the challenges raised by climate change and estimates the investment required to reach its strategic goals. Egypt ratified the Paris Agreement in June 2017 and submitted their nationally determined contribution (NDC), which focuses on the sustainability of agriculture, the environment, water resources, energy, and land management as priority areas.  

Egypt’s NDC pledges to reduce its GHG emissions; particularly reducing CO2 emissions by 20 percent from the baseline emissions level of 250MtCO2 emissions by 2030. Each sector of the economy has set mitigation targets; particularly for the agriculture, forest, and other land-use sectors, the mitigation targets include recycling agricultural waste and manure and the implementation of a national MRV system. Additionally, the NDC outlines Adaptation Action Packages with specific adaptation goals for the most vulnerable sectors, including agriculture. Such adaptation actions include building an effective institutional system to manage climate change associated crises and disasters at the national level.

UNDP office in Egypt is implementing a Green Climate Fund (GCF)-financed National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Readiness project aiming to formulate and advance Egypt’s National Adaptation Plans Process. This NAP process targets to build/enhance climate resilience in all the sectors of the economy by improving institutional and technical capacity for climate change adaptation (CCA) planning, examining climate risks, determining CCA priorities, integrating CCA into national and sectoral planning and budgeting, and increasing investment in adaptation actions. This NAP process also targets to identify private sector actors with potential to invest in climate change actions. Already there is a large and fast-growing small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) sector and a large domestic market.

SCALA Ethiopia

Ethiopia is a landlocked country in Northeast Africa and has a population of over 112 million people. Its agriculture sector plays a major role in the national economy, contributing to 34.5 percent of GDP in 2020. Smallholder farming accounts for approximately 95 percent of agricultural production and 85 percent of total employment. In Ethiopia, agriculture and land-use are high GHG emitting sectors with around 80 percent of domestic emissions. Ethiopia’s agriculture sector is extremely vulnerable to climate change due to its high dependence on natural resources, and relatively low adaptive capacity – especially in rural areas – to deal with frequently experienced extreme events and longer-term variability, including droughts and floods, rainfall variability and pest invasions.

Level of Intervention: 
POINT (39.649658188836 8.0205605250015)
Reports and Publications by country teams
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The Government of Ethiopia aims to proactively pursue further integration of climate change adaptation in its development policies and strategies, including macroeconomic and sectoral policies at regional and local levels. In support of this target, the SCALA programme will leverage participatory methods to address Ethiopia’s institutional and financial barriers to mainstream climate change at all administrative levels, to allow for a transformative shift in their agriculture and land use sectors. Building on the capacity gaps identified in scoping exercises, the programme will seek to enhance institutional capacities of the country to support the management of climate budget tagging systems, to undertake climate finance and resource mobilization, and to engage and mobilize the private sector to increase its investments in climate action. It also intends to develop stronger knowledge and information sharing platforms for bridging the gap between national, regional and woreda level governance mechanisms. Additionally, the implementation of SCALA programme will support the establishment of enabling environment and de-risking instruments to engage and incentivize private sector investments in climate actions.

The expectation of undertaking such activities is that they will help the country accelerate its NDC and NAP implementation. With the SCALA programme supporting Ethiopia over the next five years, UNDP and FAO will strive to foster a more inclusive, multi-stakeholder process that meets the needs of smallholder farmers, rural communities, women, and youth, who are the most vulnerable to climate change.


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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Whilst Ethiopia has made strides in mainstreaming adaptation and mitigation priorities into its national agriculture development plans and projects, one of the main barriers to achieving adaptation and mitigation goals remains the limited understanding and technical capacity for implementing them at the local level.  It was identified in the CRGE Strategy progress report that there is limited capacity at the local level to carry out climate risk and vulnerability assessments, gender analysis and assessments, and cost benefit analyses for prioritising adaptation and mitigation options.

Given SCALA’s programme objectives to achieve systems-level transformative change, the programme in consultation with Ethiopia’s Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance, and its Environment, Forest and Climate Change Commission (EFCCC), has identified livelihood-centred agro-ecological transitions as a priority. Preliminary work under SCALA has also identified entry points for catalysing transformative climate action in the agriculture and land use sector within selected agro-ecological zones (AEZ). For example, with the need for more gender-responsive climate risk analyses, the SCALA programme plans to carry out a gender analysis of selected value chains in vulnerable AEZs. This will include an appraisal of the cost and benefits of value chain-based interventions to spur inclusive climate action. Establishing a strong evidence base that is also rooted in local contexts would then set the foundation for designing a transformative climate action implementation plan at local levels, with a gender and social inclusion lens.

Country Climate Plans: 

The Government of Ethiopia submitted its nationally determined contribution (NDC) to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2016, and formally submitted an updated NDC in July 2021. The updated NDC builds on, and is in line with, the country’s development goals as laid out in its Growth and Transformation Plan II, its Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) Strategy, the emerging Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy, the Green Legacy Initiative, and Ethiopia’s 10-year Development Plan. The bulk of Ethiopia’s NDC adaptation commitments are focused on the agriculture and land use sectors, with priority areas including livestock diversification, drought-resistant animal breeding, rangeland management, crop, and livestock insurance. Ethiopia formulated its National Adaptation Plan (NAP) in 2017, along with a NAP Implementation Roadmap that further categorized the short-term adaptation priorities (such as capacity building, strengthening the enabling environment and promoting research), as well as long-term sector-specific priorities.

In its final National Adaptation Plan (NAP-ETH, 2019), Ethiopia prioritized adaptation in the sectors considered most vulnerable to climate change, namely: agriculture, forestry, health, transport, energy, industry, water and urban. Within these sectors, 18 adaptation options are identified for implementation at all administrative levels, recognizing the considerable diversity in context and vulnerability across Ethiopia’s regions and social groups. Ethiopia is working to integrate climate information into planning and decision-making for development interventions, and prioritizing climate resilience across policies to improve the adaptive capacity at national/federal, regional and Woreda levels. The plan is guided by the principles of participation, coherent interventions, stakeholder empowerment, gender sensitivity, equitable implementation, and partnership, especially with the private sector.

SCALA Senegal

Located in West Africa, Senegal has a steadily growing economy over recent years. However, poverty in Senegal is still prevalent in rural areas, where roughly 60 percent of the population resides. The other 40 percent of the population resides in urban areas, where the majority live in rapidly growing urban suburbs. Low agricultural production, limited capacity of the economy to create sustainable jobs, and inadequate resource allocation for social services contribute to poverty. While the agriculture, livestock and fishery sectors are contributing to food and nutrition security and representing 60 percent of the Senegalese rural labor force, these sectors are vulnerable to several climate-related impacts, such as drought, locust invasion, flooding, sea-level rise, coastal erosion and related health epidemics, as well as bush fires.

Level of Intervention: 
POINT (-15.224304203678 14.897604348482)
Reports and Publications of relevance to Country Teams
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Senegal has a strong motivation to enhance its climate strategies and create more sustainable production patterns and food systems. The country plans to achieve its climate objectives in terms of land use and agriculture through the transformation of agri-food systems. The systemic approach adopted by the SCALA programme with all stakeholders constitutes an innovative approach to overcome obstacles and help define actionable priorities. Through fostering stakeholder commitments, to build institutional, financial and technical capacities and foster transformation actions such as agroecology, improving crop varieties, agroforestry and the importance of operationalizing the concept of agripreneur, the SCALA programme will further support the government of Senegal in accessing sustainable solutions, by considering cross-cutting issues and promoting synergies between ongoing initiatives.


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News and Updates: 
Strengthening transformative approaches in Senegal’s climate action plans

6 November 2021 - The programme was officially launched during a two-day inception workshop in September 2021, where key stakeholders discussed SCALA’s activities and objectives to be implemented over the next four years. The discussion centered on the agroecological solutions (such as composting), improving crop varieties, agroforestry and the importance of operationalizing the concept of “agripreneur”. To learn more about the national priorities discussed, the SCALA programme sat down with two technical advisers from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Equipment, Mr. Boubacar Drame and Mr. Younoussa Mballo, to unpack the opportunities and objectives of the programme.

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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDG 13 - Climate Action

The main barriers towards the implementation of mitigation and adaptation measures on an institutional level are the low level of integrating NDC and NAP priorities in the planning and budgeting process and the lack of coordination and capacity in intersectoral planning. On a technical level, these sectors are facing major challenges, such as the availability of data and information to actors and the need to strengthen the information system measures for the effective monitoring and evaluation of transformative climate mitigation and adaptation actions. Senegal can achieve its goals to reduce GHG emissions and integrate adaptation and mitigation priorities with international community support and sustainable funding. The country can also benefit from transferring environmentally friendly technologies and strengthening institutional and human capacities in its climate change agenda.

Country Climate Plans: 

Senegal developed a National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2006 and submitted an INDC in 2015, which outlined the country’s plans for mitigation and adaptation. The NDC was recently revised and submitted ahead of COP26 in 2021, while sectoral NAPs are currently under development. The Plan for an Emerging Senegal (Plan Sénégal Emergent) reflects the strong political will for development based on more sustainable production patterns and food systems. Since 2019, various actors involved in agroecology in Senegal have come together under the DyTAES (Dynamique pour une Transition AgroEcologique au Sénégal) framework to contribute to the reflections of the Senegalese government to build an agroecological transition policy.

In Senegal, the agriculture sector represents 36 percent of its GHG emissions followed by land use change and forestry (22 percent). As communicated in the NDC, the emissions from the agriculture sector will increase gradually and steadily, until 2030. Henceforth, to reduce emissions, Senegal will first create synergies between local community stakeholders and the private sector to reinforce acquired knowledge and build on good practices in terms of mitigation and adaptation to scale up action.

Strongly threatened by climate change, Senegal aims to enhance adaptation and mitigation measures in the agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry sectors.  Particularly in the crop production sector, the mitigation priorities are focused on the Intensive Rice Cultivation System, composting and assisted natural regeneration. Regarding adaptation priorities, the country will focus on vulnerable ecosystems and will work with vulnerable populations to increase their resilience to climate change impacts. Senegal will concentrate on promoting agriculture-livestock-agroforestry production systems, sustainable land management, use of adapted varieties, agriculture insurance, generic improve of species and animal health, promote sustainable aquaculture and restoration of mangroves field.

SCALA Uganda

Uganda experiences the effects of climate change in the form of increased temperatures, frequent disease outbreaks and insect infestations, disrupted rainfall patterns, and frequent floods and droughts. While Uganda has progressively undergone social and economic growth and transformation, consequently reducing its poverty rate by 23 percent over the last two decades, sustained gains will require continued investments in agriculture, and the inclusive participation in the economic growth of women as well the population reported poor in 2019. With 81 percent of the population engaged in rain-fed subsistence farming for food and cash income, the country’s reliance on rain-fed agriculture remains a risk to economic growth, income of farmers, as well as export earnings. Agriculture contributes up to 40 percent of Uganda’s total GDP and over 90 percent of the country’s foreign exchange earnings. The agriculture sector contributes to 27 percent of emissions, followed by the land-use and forestry sector with approximately 60 percent of emissions.

Level of Intervention: 
POINT (33.115539537662 1.5134964330573)
Project Details: 

With the support of the SCALA programme, Uganda is moving towards the implementation of its agriculture and land use transformative priorities in its NAP and updated NDC. The country aims to further mainstream gender-responsiveness in the implementation of both the agriculture NAP and the updated NDC, through multi-stakeholder engagement in the cattle corridor. According to the discussion held during the inception workshop and the orientation of the theory of change, the SCALA programme supports the integration of climate resilience and adaptation information into the agricultural extension system especially at the local government levels. SCALA also supports the government to promote crop varieties and livestock breeds that are better adapted to the production practices and weather variability in the cattle corridor. To address challenges associated with rain-fed agriculture, and expected variability in rainfall, SCALA can help Uganda develop an irrigation policy to ensure sustainable access to water and its efficient use for enhanced crop production and profitability for smallholder farmers. The programme generally focuses on strengthening the sub-national-to-national linkages during planning, implementation and monitoring processes of adaptation and mitigation actions, with an emphasis on promoting private sector investment in climate-resilient agriculture in the cattle corridor. 

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News and Updates: 
Uganda identifies barriers, solutions, and investment opportunities for gender-responsive agri-food value chains in the cattle corridor

26 October 2021 - The SCALA team sat down with Mr. John Chrysostom Birantana, Senior Principal Policy Analyst at the Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries to understand the challenges related to scaling up both climate change adaptation and mitigation in the cattle corridor landscape, and how the country plans to overcome those barriers to achieve its ambitious climate agenda.

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Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
SDG 13 - Climate Action

Uganda experiences different types of barriers in achieving its agriculture climate goals mainly in the cattle corridor and the agriculture and land use sectors. Smallholder farmers and particularly women, youth and poorer households are facing challenges to implement climate adaptation and mitigation measures such as erratic food prices, limited knowledge and skills for climate smart agriculture, and lack in transportation and processing infrastructure. Moreover, limited agricultural insurance schemes, inadequate access to finance and limited access and control of land and other production resources makes it hard for them to invest in climate action plans. The limited integration and coordination mechanisms among relevant actors and policy gap related to food quality and safety are the main challenges faced at a governance level.

Country Climate Plans: 

Uganda was part of the FAO and UNDP supported Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP-Ag) Programme from 2015-2020, and developed a gender-responsive National Adaptation Plan (NAP) for the agriculture sector and its monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework which now requires support for implementation. Uganda has undertaken steps to implement the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and increase its ambition. The country developed its latest NDC through inclusive and participatory processes and aligned the NDC with its climate-resilient, long-term emission strategy. Most significantly is Uganda’s formulation of the National Climate Change Act 2021 to give the force of law to the Paris Agreement.

Based on the first and updated interim NDC, Uganda continues to prioritize adaptation as the first response to climate change and aims to strengthen mitigation actions, starting with the expansion of extension services and climate-related information. The country is committed to working on reducing climate change vulnerability and addressing climate actions in several key economic sectors including energy, waste, and industrial processes and product use (IPPU). As well the agriculture and livestock, forestry, sustainable land management (SLM), and sustainable natural resources management (mainly wetlands and natural forests restoration, open water bodies protection), are considered as the country’s greatest source of emissions. The country will scale up to increase resilience and adaptability at the community level and leverage synergies with the county’s land-based mitigation goals.

Japan Caribbean Climate Change Partnership

The Challenge

Climate change is recognized as one of the challenges which compounds inherent vulnerabilities in the Caribbean; it could significantly increase the risk of hurricanes and storms and threaten the region’s development. Increasing coastal erosion and severe coral reef bleaching events in 2005 and 2010 bear witness to this. Tourism and agriculture will be among the sectors most negatively impacted by these climatic changes. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirms that small islands are highly vulnerable to climatic and non-climatic stressors, with sea level rise and temperature rise among the most insidious threats for coastal flooding and erosion, ecosystem degradation and loss of livelihoods. Further, inadequate awareness, information, technical and policy capacity, and limited funding availability for informing and formulating a low-emissions development strategy are among the reasons that it has been difficult to direct and guide climate change mitigation investments in the Caribbean. In sum, climate change threatens to undermine decades of progress and effort. As a result, it is a focal area for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), being explicitly identied in goal 13 but also encompassing other goals.

The Solution

Recognising that persistent climate-related liabilities will continue to undermine their potential for sustainable development, Caribbean countries are focusing their post-2015 long-term sustainable development strategies on the principles of climate risk management and resilience building – understood as market transformations based on “adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their eects or impacts.” Studies have shown that cost-effective adaptation and risk mitigation solutions can help to avoid up to 90% of expected losses. The Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership (J-CCCP) brings together policy makers, experts and representatives of communities to encourage policy innovation for climate technology incubation and diffusion. By doing so, the initiative aims to ensure that barriers to the implementation of climate-resilient technologies are addressed and overcome in a participatory and efficient manner. Policy instruments such as Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) provide tailored frameworks to expand access to clean energy and to prioritise adaptation measures. As a result, concrete mitigation and adaptation will be implemented on the ground, in line with countries' long-term strategies.

Building upon and supported by the NAMAs and NAPs, the partnership will support the incubation of climate technology into targeted public sectors, private industries, and community groups and enterprises so that green, low-emission climate-resilient technologies can be tested, refined, adopted, and sustained as a practical measure to enhance national, sub-national and community level resilience. These technologies will help reduce the dependence on fossil fuel imports, setting the region on a low emission development path; as well as improve the region’s ability to respond to climate risks and opportunities in the long-run, through resilient development approaches that go beyond disaster response to extreme events. The Partnership will include the following eight Caribbean countries: the Belize, Commonwealth of Dominica, Grenada, the republic of Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and the Republic of Suriname. The Government of Japan has provided financial and technical support for this project, with UNDP acting in the capacity of implementing partner.


Level of Intervention: 
POINT (-62.226562504703 17.486911106985)
Case Study
Quarterly Updates
Training & Tools
Plans and policies of relevance to NAPs for Non-Least Developed Countries (non-LDCs)
Assessments and Background Documents
Project Brief / Fact Sheet
Communications Products

J-CCCP Pilot Projects in Dominica

ACT Now Saint Lucia TV PSA

Sustainable Agriculture Pilot Projects in Saint Lucia

Launch of Communication Campaign in Suriname

Climate Smart Landscapes in Belize

ACT Now Saint Lucia Climate Change Calypso

Water Woes Lessened with J-CCCP Support

Launch of the 'Beat the Clock' Campaign in Grenada

Launch of J-CCCP Pilot Projects in Grenada

J-CCCP Mid-term Lessons Learned Review

J-CCCP 'Beat the Clock' Campaign Video

SIEGE ON MY LAND - Guyana's Battle with Climate Change Premiere Highlights

Climate Change Animation for Suriname [Dutch]

Youth Climate Change Conference 2017 Highlights

SIEGE ON MY LAND - Guyana's Battle with Climate Change - A Short Film

Launch of the J-CCCP Solar-PV Pilot Project in Bartica, Guyana

J-CCCP 'Beat the Clock' Campaign Video

J-CCCP 'Feel the Change' Campaign Overview

J-CCCP 'Feel the Change' Campaign Video

J-CCCP Pilot Projects in St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Expected Results

Indicator Baseline Target (end of project)
Outcome 1: NAMAs and NAPs to promote alternative low-emission and climate-resilient technologies that can support energy transformation and adaptation in economic sectors are formulated and institutionalized 1A. Number of countries where implementation of comprehensive measures - plans, strategies, policies, programmes and budgets - to achieve low-emission and climate-resilient development objectives have improved (SP1.4.2) Some Caribbean countries have developed urgent and immediate plans for adaptation and other related climate change strategies and started their implementation, with some having coordination mechanisms in place to integrate them into the development process as well as other elements which could be used for medium to long-term planning. 6 countries with developed and validated  NAMAs (supported under this initiative)
1B. Number of countries with disaster reduction and/or integrated disaster reduction and adaptation plans (disaggregated by gender responsiveness), and dedicated institutional frameworks and multi-stakeholder coordination mechanisms (SP5.2.1) Almost all Caribbean countries report on lack of capacity, data, expertise, institutions and financial resources to undertake medium- to long -term oriented impact assessment and adaptation planning 1 country with coordination mechanism that advance the NAP process

8 countries with increased capacity to develop adaptation plans

4 national organisations with baseline climate change impact data necessary for development of adaptation plans
1C. Number of national/sub-national development and key sectoral plans that explicitly address disaster and/or climate risk management being implemented, disaggregated by those which are gender responsive 1 beneficiary country has submitted a NAMA to the UNFCCC (Dominica)

At least 3 countries have projects underway to develop NAPs/LEDS/GE Strategy (Grenada, Jamaica, Saint Lucia)
5 countries have country approved NAPs or NAP Road Maps, which explicitly address disaster and climate risk resilience and gender impacts
Outcome 2: Selected mitigation and adaptation technologies transferred and adopted for low emission and climate resilient development in the Caribbean  2A.  Number of schemes which expand and diversify the productive base based on the use of sustainable production technologies (SP1.1.3) Few positive measures exist (water harvesting, micro-dams, water saving incentives) but are limited in reach and need up-scaling

Some countries have incentives and mechanisms to encourage sustainable practices within various sectors.
15 schemes/interventions which expand and diversify the productive base based on the use of sustainable production technologies
10 agricultural sites implementing climate adaptation and sustainable production methods
2B.  Number of people with improved access to water that meets international drinking standards with % female-headed households benefitting from this access 500 people with improved access to water with 40% of female-headed households benefitting from this access
2C. Area of farmland where climate smart agriculture technologies have been adopted (e.g. reduced tillage, permanent crop cover etc.) and/or with adaptive and improved grazing techniques 5 hectares of grazing area with adaptive and improved grazing techniques
5 hectares of farmland where climate smart agriculture technologies have been adopted (e.g. reduced tillage, permanent crop cover etc).
15% increase crop density (plants per hectare) relative to inputs 
2D. Number of communities where sector-specific risk reduction measures  are being implemented disaggregated by urban and rural areas 12 communities implementing risk reduction measures, disaggregated by urban/rural area
2E. Number of people with improved access to energy with % of female-headed households benefitting from improved access to energy (SP1.5.2) 150 people with improved access to energy with 40% of females benefitting from improved access to energy 
Outcome 3: Knowledge networks strengthened in Caribbean to foster South-South and North-South cooperation through sharing of experiences surrounding climate change, natural hazard risk and resilience


3A. Number of new partnership mechanisms with exposure to funding for sustainable  management  solutions of natural resources, ecosystem services, chemicals  and waste at national and/or sub-national level (SP1.3.1)

Several formal and informal relationships exist within the region, and opportunities for cooperation originate in many forms, including through regional bodies as well as projects 3 partnership mechanisms agreed
3B. Number of case studies disseminated and available on regional knowledge platforms 10 case studies disseminated and available on regional knowledge platforms
3C. Number of targeted communities with a strengthened understanding and awareness of climate change risks and adaptation measure 8,000 persons across 20 communities with a strengthened understanding and awareness of climate change risks and adaptation measure
3D. Number of persons benefitting from knowledge-sharing and targeted South-South and North-South cooperation 1,000 persons benefitting from knowledge-sharing and targeted South-South and North-South cooperation



Please also view the Project's Mid-term Evaluation Report. 

Yoko Ebisawa
Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership - Project Manager
Neisha Manickchand
Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership - Technical Specialist
Sherri Frederick
Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership - Monitoring & Evaluation Analyst
Penny Bowen
Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership - Communications Associate
Wilfred Tate
JCCCP National Focal Point - Belize
Claudine Roberts
JCCCP National Focal Point - Dominica
Astrid Lynch
JCCCP National Focal Point - Guyana
Annlyn Mc Phie
JCCCP National Focal Point - Grenada
Eltha Brown
JCCCP National Focal Point - Jamaica
Kurt Prospere
JCCCP National Focal Point - Saint Lucia
Ruthvin Harper
JCCCP National Focal Point - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Sharon Legiman
JCCCP National Focal Point - Suriname
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

J-CCCP Wrap-up Event

Over the course of three days, J-CCCP mounted a multi-media gallery to showcase the impact of J-CCCP's work over the project lifetime. The day prior, the project visited J-CCCP pilot projects in Saint Lucia where technology or knowledge from Japan has been transfered.

Agricultural Knowledge-sharing Event

J-CCCP invited farmers, agricultural practitioners, regional agencies and NGOs who work in agriculture to join nature farming and research experts from Japan to knowledge share. This event builds on the 19 agriculture-focused pilot projects implemented by J-CCCP and the study tour to Japan, completed in 2018.

UN Youth Climate Summit

UNDP's J-CCCP is supporting the attendance of 11 youth who have played key roles in advancing climate action in the region. Their participation builds on the 2017 Youth Climate Change Conference. Now, many of these youth have come together to create a NGO - Youth Climate Change Activists where they actively advocate for increased action among peers and decision makers. 

Climate Finance Workshop

Over thirty representatives from nine Caribbean countries met in Kingstown, St. Vincent and the Grenadines to better position themselves to access funding for climate change mitigation.

NAP Workshops in Belize and Guyana

Stakeholders, government representatives and development partners recently gathered to take Belize and Guyana one step closer to the finalization of their National Adaptation Plans (NAPs).

NAP Donor Symposium and Peer Learning 

Representatives of the Governments of Saint Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines gathered at UN House in Barbados to present their National Adaption Plans (NAPs) and priorities to members of the donor community who are active in the Caribbean. The following day, they were joined by colleagues from Jamaica and Grenada where they had the opportunity to share ideas, experiences and lessons learned surrounding their NAP process.

Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre's International Conference on Climate Change for the Caribbean

More than 100 climate scientists, researchers and negotiators from across the Caribbean and the world gathered at the Hilton Hotel in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad from October 9 to 12, 2017, to highlight the region’s climate change adaptation successes at the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) International Conference on Climate Change for the Caribbean.

Youth Climate Change Conference 2017

Caribbean and Japanese youth have put forward their recommendations for climate-smart actions for the region following two days of intense dialogue between October 10-11, 2017 at the third staging of the Youth Climate Change Conference at the Jamaica Conference Centre.

National Adaptation Plan Workshop for Latin America and the Caribbean

Representatives from twenty-six countries in the Latin America and Caribbean countries attended the regional workshop on national adaptation plans (NAPs), held in San Jose, Costa Rica, from 4 to 7 September, 2017.

Capacity Development for Media Practitioners

J-CCCP provided climate change training to more than 30 journalists from across the region. The two-day training seminar enabled media practitioners to learn and share best practices on climate change issues including, climate change science, economics and policy as well as the role of media entities in communicating on climate change.

Consultation for the Development of a Transportation NAMA in St. Vincent and the Grenadines

As St. Vincent and the Grenadines pursues the development of a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) in the transportation sector, stakeholders gathered to consult on the process.

Presentation of KAP Study Results and Campaign Brainstorming in St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Stakeholders, some of whom took part in data collection for the study, gathered to hear the results of a knowledge, attitudes and practices study conducted in St. Vincent and the Grenadines in December, 2016. Participants also assisted with the development of campaign approaches and committed to supporting campaign implementation.

Development of Belize's National Communication Strategy for Climate Change

J-CCCP supported the National Climate Change Office of Belize in the development of a national communications plan for climate change. This support was in the form of a workshop where stakeholders from key sectors across the country fed into the development of the plan. 

Caribbean Climate Change Coordination Seminar

In April 2016, representatives from regional organisations gathered in St. Lucia to map synergies and actions between development partners and the Project relating to NAPs, NAMAs and knowledge management and communications. Organisations in attendance included: CARDI, CARICOM, CEDMA, CCCCC, CYEN, CIMH, CARPHA, and PANOS, among others. For NAP and NAMA development and pilot projects, organisations were asked to identify stages at which each organisation may be able to lend support based on their expertise, the specific nature of the assistance and how additional funding could be leveraged. Participants also contributed to plans under outcome 3, including policy events, study tours and campaigns and noted that the exercise was useful in order to break a trend of working in silos.-NAMA training

Training Seminar on the Development and Implementation of Climate Mitigation Actions

J-CCCP partnered with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Regional Collaboration Centre (UNFCCC RCC), the UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building (LECB) Programme and local Ministries in the months of June and September to conduct two-day training seminars in Belize, Grenada, Guyana, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Suriname. The seminars were designed to support the development of climate mitigation actions, including Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). Approximately two hundred persons were trained in total. 

National Adaptation Plans Regional Workshop for the Caribbean

Representatives from 10 Caribbean countries, including J-CCCP’s 8 beneficiary countries, met in Grenada’s capital of St. Georges to discuss strategies to prepare for the impact of climate change. Following Grenada’s final consultation on its National Adaptation Plan (NAP), they were able to share lessons from their experience of national adaptation planning, including some key topics such as political buy-in, coordination, integration of the sectoral plan, climate finance with peers through this two-day event.  The NAP Assembly was co-hosted by Grenada’s Ministry of Education, Human Resource Development and the Environment; the UNDP Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership (J-CCCP); and the NAP Global Network.

National Communication Strategy Development Workshop - Belize

J-CCCP supported the National Climate Change Office of Belize in the development of a country-wide communications strategy. This workshop saw Communications Professionals from Belizean Ministries, CBOs, NGOs and the media gather to have inputs into the strategy. The Project will focus its efforts on implementing the initial stage of the strategy with support from other local stakeholders.  

News and Updates: 
September, 2019
Project Wrap-Up
September, 2019
February, 2019
November, 2018
October, 2018
August, 2018
August, 2018
July, 2018
June, 2018
May, 2018
February, 2018
December, 2017
November, 2017
October, 2017
October, 2017
September, 2017
September, 2017
July, 2017
April, 2017
February, 2017
November, 2016

June, 2016

UNDP and UNFCCC Initiates Training Seminars for Climate Mitigation Actions in the Caribbean


January, 2016

Japan and UNDP kick start US$15 million Caribbean Climate Change Project


Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Civil Society Engagement: 


Programme on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA)

Climate stresses and low adaptive capacity are increasing Africa´s vulnerability to climate change. Climate related shocks to the economy, vulnerable populations, ecosystems and infrastructure threaten development goals and poverty alleviation strategies. The ability of decision-makers to understand and communicate the likely impacts of climate change is of critical importance in adapting development plans to new climate realities. However, the lack of access to reliable climate information and the lack of capacity of disseminating it prove to be significant obstacles in allowing governments and populations to develop the correct tools to address the changes that will be brought on as a result of climate change.

The Programme on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA) will enable vulnerable countries in Africa (Benin, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, the Gambia, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia) to strengthen national climate information systems as well as to benefit from regional coordination and draw upon a platform of knowledge management.

The CIRDA Programme will coordinate among different stakeholders needs and capacities in collecting, generating, analysing and disseminating relevant climate information. It will also provide capacity building on: meteorological, climate and hydrological observing and forecasting systems, disaster risk management and viable communication systems/processes for disseminating alerts, and the use of alternative cost-effective technologies. The Programme will provide special consideration on reaching end user populations such as farmers as well as strategies to engage with the private sector as a service provider and as an end user of climate information.

The multi-country programme is being implemented by UNDP with funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF) and is an example of the concrete actions that the UN is taking to reduce the impacts of climate change in all development sectors.




Level of Intervention: 
POINT (38.320312491284 10.328754533132)
Knowledge Products
Programme Related Events
Reports and Publications of relevance to Country Teams
Communications Products
Training & Tools
Reports and Publications by country teams
Planning Meeting Presentations
Project Brief / Fact Sheet
Board Meeting Reports
Nairobi Round Table on Strengthening Development of Climate Information and Early Warning Systems
Launch Workshop CIRDA

UNDP Climate Change Adaptation: Prevent Natural Disasters in Benin

Project Details: 

The Multi-Country Programme will support the following countries in Africa use climate information as a key tool in long term planning fundamental for economic development.

The Programme will strengthen the capacity of these countries and the region to develop and operate modern climate information and early warning systems by making available technical assistance and provide access to new technologies. Countries will also benefit from regional coordination and a knowledge sharing platform.

For up to date information on the CIRDA Programme and to engage in our ongoing discussions, make sure to check out our blog:

For a brief snapshot of the Programme, download the CIRDA Fact Sheet.

Bonizella Biagini

Dr. Bonizella (Boni) Biagini currently manages the UNDP’s Programme on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA).

Prior to joining UNDP in 2014, Dr. Biagini worked at the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for 12 years, leading the creation and development of the GEF Adaptation program and project portfolio. She was the senior official responsible for mobilizing resources for the first two dedicated adaptation funds: the Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF) and the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF), which together have received donor support of $1.5 billion.  Before joining the GEF, Dr. Biagini worked at several NGOs including the Climate, Energy and Pollution Program at the World Resources Institute and the international office of Legambiente, a leading Italian environmental research organization.

A physicist by training, Dr. Biagini has worked on climate change and other global environmental issues for 25 years in Europe, the United States, Africa, Asia, and several small island states. In addition to her technical skills, her background encompasses an unusual combination of operational experience on the ground and high-level participation in international environmental meetings including the Earth Summit and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Learn more about Dr. Biagini's work with the GEF Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) and the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) in the May 2016 publication "Time to Adapt: Insights from the GEF's Experience in Adaptation to Climate Change." Dr. Biagini is also a contributor to the IPCC Third and Fourth Assessment Reports on Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, and the author of numerous publications on climate change science and policy, including the report “Confronting Climate Change, Economic Priorities and Climate Protection in Developing Nations.” (Biagini, 2000).  She is the lead author of three recent articles documenting experiences resulting from climate change adaptation projects:  “Engaging the Private Sector in Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries” (Biagini, Miller, 2013), “A Typology of Adaptation Actions: A Global Look at Climate Adaptation Actions Financed Through the Global Environment Facility” (Biagini, Bierbaum, Stults, Dobardzic, McNeeley, 2014); and “Technology Transfer for Adaptation” (Biagini, Kuhl, Sims Gallagher, Ortiz, 2014). (Photo Courtesy Margherita Mirabella)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Climate Data Digitization

At the request of the governments of The Gambia, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia, the UNDP Programme on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA) is taking steps to assist in the preservation of historic climate data in these six African Least Developed Countries.

In its initial phase of support, two experts were commissioned by the CIRDA Programme to meet with National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMS) to provide guidance on digitization efforts and create a plan to capture digital records, particularly data used to manage climate impacts on agriculture, fishing and floods. With new training support, three countries are now scaling up efforts to capture historic records and digitize tens of thousands of pages of historic climate archives.

Types of Climate Data
Climate data generally falls into two categories: historical data and data from recent and current observations.

While most people understand the importance of current and recent climate data, fewer appreciate the equal importance of historical climate data. Historical data allow one to establish long-term trends, which in turn helps us understand and better plan for future changes in climate. They also help in developing and refining climate models and seasonal forecasts, as well as provide the foundational datasets used for adaptation studies at local, national and regional scales.

Climate models are mathematical representations of the interactions between the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, ice and the sun. Once a climate model is developed, it has to be tested to find out if it works. And since we can’t wait for 30 years to see if a model is any good or not, the models have to be tested against the past in a process that is called “hindcasting” that rely on historical observations. The simple assumption of hindcasting is that if a model can correctly predict current trends from a starting point somewhere in the past, one can expect it to predict what might happen in the future.

History of Climate Data
Meteorological data observations in most African countries date back to the early 19th Century (for example, in Tanzania the first meteorological observation was made along the coast in 1850). Once recorded on paper, the observations are kept in various formats in data archives usually located at meteorological agency headquarters or even still at the stations where the measurements were originally taken. But this historical data is recorded largely on paper and, depending on the age of the paper and the condition of the archives, some of the data is unreadable or is wearing out at dramatic rates, due to handwritten ink that fades over time. 

Initial Needs Assessment
During an initial needs assessment, only Malawi reported having partial access to digitized historic data, with other countries often reporting no central digital archive of these data existing. One reason for this is that historic climate data sets are often held by other agencies aside from the NHMS. Alternative agencies holding historic data sets often include the Ministries of Agriculture, Water, Transport and Education.

Why Digitization is Important
Climate data is an essential ingredient needed to develop weather/climate-based early warning systems and a cornerstone for resilience building efforts. It not only allows us to monitor adverse impacts across development sectors, populations and ecosystems, but it also helps countries to prepare for and adapt to the realities of climate change. This information can be analyzed and applied to protect development gains and aid in the achievement of National Adaptation Plan goals. It is also an essential ingredient in creating more accurate forecasts that can be used to track storms, protect lives and build more resilient livelihoods. Unfortunately, in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, these important data – often recorded with pen and paper – is being lost at a remarkable rate. Civil War, material decay and the sands of time are literally erasing the historical record of climate in the region.

The Strategy
National digitization strategies depend on a number of factors, including where and how data is stored, legal frameworks, in-house capacity, budgets, and equipment. Generally speaking, and often utilizing external funding, governments electronically capture paper records into a database with the first step being to record digital images of the data using a scanner or digital camera. This ensures that a digital copy of the record is preserved and can be be shared. However, the data itself is not yet in a digital form where it can be used to make calculations or for computational analyses. This requires either manually keying the records into a digital database, using software such as ClimSoft or Excel, or using automatic character recognition software to read, analyze and warehouse the new digital archive. Each variable and data set is important for improved weather forecasting and historical climate tracking, with different variables being used in different applications e.g. wind speed, humidity, temperature and incident radiation all important to calculate evaporation which is used model hydrological flows and crop development. An example of some of the main data useful for climate applications are given below:

Top Level Data Sets

  • Rainfall
  • Temperatures
  • Wind speed and direction
  • Humidity
  • Sunshine duration
  • Incident solar radiation
  • River Discharge
  • Salinity
  • Surface Water levels

Resources and Further Reading


From top to botton: Historic records in The Gambia, where the archive is not in a good state, but recent records are intact; handheld data recue efforts in Uganda; and the Tanzania Meteorological Department's historic archive.

Programme Outputs

UNDP's CIRDA Programme provides support to 11 vulnerable countries African countries in their efforts to enhance their capacity to collect, analyze and disseminate climate information as a tool in adaptation planning. It does so by providing expert technical advice, promoting regional cooperation efforts, and capacity building.The support provided by the CIRDA Programme is in addition to each countries efforts to implement individual national climate information/early warning projects.

Click below for the project's terminal evaluation and completion reports


Click below to learn about some recent on the ground achievements:




Sao Tome and Principe



Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Implementation of the CIRDA Programme is carried out under the general guidance of a Project Board composed of senior-level representatives from UNDP-GEF, WMO, UN-SPIDER, and representatives from 3 UNDP Country Offices.

The Project Board is the strategic decision-making body of the project, providing overall guidance and direction to the CIRDA Programme Manager.

IV Board Meeting 2018

A CIRDA Project Board Meeting was held 22 February 2018.

Click here Board Minutes

Click here for Board Presentations

III Board Meeting- 2016/17

A CIRDA Project Board Meeting was held in 16 February, 2017. The meeting presented the 2017 AWP as well as the Programme's milestones for 2016.

Click here for Board Meeting Minutes

Click here for Board Meeting Presentation

Click here for UNDP CIRDA 2016 Milestones

II Board Meeting- 2015

A CIRDA Project Board Meeting was held in Kampala, Uganda on March 5, 2015. The meeting was held to present the Programme's 2015 Annual Work Plan and Budget, both were approved by all board members.

Click here for Board Meeting Minutes

Click here for the Board Meeting Presentation

I Board Meeting- 2014

The first Project Board Meeting was held on July 8, 2014. The meeting's objective was the presentation of CIRDA's Annual Work Plan and Budget, both which were unanimously approved.

Click Here for the Board Meeting Minutes

Click Here for the Board Meeting Presentation

Click here for the project's terminal evaluation and completion report

Terminal Evaluation Report

Completion Report

Bonizella Biagini
Programme Manager
Montserrat Xilotl
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 

'Towards Sustainability of Climate Information Services' 

Achievements, Impacts, Lessons Learned and Next Steps for Climate Information Projects

29 November- 1 December, 2017, Lusaka Zambia

Information is power. With improved weather and climate information, nations are able to make climate-smart decisions on everything from agriculture to energy to natural resource conservation while vulnerable communities are be able to protect themselves when bad and unpredictable weather hits. With this in in mind, UNDP been collaborating with countries in strengthening their capacities to collect reliable climate information and to communicate effectively to enhance community and economic resilience to a changing climate. The UNDP Multi Country Programme on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA) has been working with 11 African countries for 5 years in meeting this objective by deploying world-leading experts on hydrology, new technologies, meteorology and public-private partnerships and helping national meteorological services establish the networks, partnerships and capacities needed provide climate information in a manner that meets the needs of vulnerable communites and main economic sectors.  

This past November, UNDP and the Govenment of Zambia held a regional workshop with representatives from Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, the Gambia, Liberia, Malawi, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda aa as they begin to develop their plans to ensure long-term sustainability of the investments made in the in the framework of national GEF- LDCF funded projects aimed at strengthening national climate information and early warning systems (SCI/EWS). The workshop focused on the achievements made by each country project including the establishment of national standard operating procedures for early warnings, data rescue of important historical data, expansion of observation networks, enhanced national capacities in forecasting and administrating data and in some cases consolidating weather and climate data and making it available online to help users better assess climate risks. Through discussing achievements and lessons learned, the workshop was able to work with countries to address common concerns and issues as projects move forward with national resources and efforts. 

The workshop provided examples of regional and national African networks that have achived a sound level of sustainability  such as ASECNA and the Nigerian Meteorological Service (NIMET) and projects that have looked to innovative methods to disseminate climate information for decision making such as PICSA. Participation from the African Development Bank, the World Bank,and UNDP also provided discussion on lessons learned through its various portfolio of projects including a new approach that needs to be taken that goes beyond just investing in equipment but moving towards providing climate information services that are economically sustainable, country appropriate and in turn generate true resilience to climate change. 


Workshop Presentations

  1. UNDP CIRDA Programme - Bonizella Biagini
  2. Liberia SCI/EWS Project Update
  3. Zambia SCI/EWS Project Update
  4. Sierra Leone SCI/EWS Project Update
  5. Malawi SCI/EWS Project Update
  6. Introduction to Data Rescue Efforts- Mark Tadross
  7. IEDRO: Historical Climate Data Rescue and Digitization Efforts in Africa- Martin Mukhondia
  8. ZMD: Climate Data Rescue in Zambia- Martin Swasa
  9. Uganda SCI/EWS Project Update
  10. Ethiopia SCI/EWS Project Update
  11. Tanzania SCI/EWS Project Update
  12. PICSA- Graham Clarkson
  13. Kukua- Penelope Cabot
  14. Sao Tome and Principe SCI/EWS Project Update
  15. Benin SCI/EWS Project Update
  16. Burkina Faso SCI/EWS Project Update
  17. ASECNA- Mahfoudh Moctar
  18. NIMET- Sani Abubakar Mashi
  19. They Hydro in Hydromet- Joost Hoedjes
  20. Long Term Agreement with BRL for hydro-modeling- Marie Christine Germain
  21. Lessons Learned African Development Bank- Justus Kabyerma
  22. Lessons Learned UNDP CIRDA- Bonizella Biagini

Workgroup Activity Results

Group 1: Benin, Burkina Faso, Sao Tome and Principe

Group 2: Malawi, Sierra Leone, Liberia

Group 3: Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Zambia

Workshop Minutes

Participant List


‘The Last Mile’

Saving lives, improving livelihoods and increasing resiliency with tailored weather information services
for a changing climate

15-17 March, 2016, Livingstone, Zambia

Climate information and early warning systems can save lives, improve livelihoods and build resiliency across Africa. In order to seize this opportunity, timely, accurate and actionable weather and climate information must be delivered from data collection and creation sources across the “Last Mile” to uninformed and vulnerable end-users.

In this innovation-driven multi-country workshop, experts on cutting-edge technology, communications, public-private partnerships, meteorology and sustainable development will come together to explore new pathways to move from the collection of data to its application, with the end goal of creating actionable recommendations that UNDP-supported climate-information programmes can leverage to impact lives and build sustainability. For this to happen, national weather information services should not only have access to modern weather observation technologies and forecast information, but they must also be able to communicate and apply the content derived from these systems to those in need.

Interactive sessions will cover diverse topics beginning with the sharing of best practices on the application of weather data in the field, followed by sessions and panel discussions that explore important topics that will guide our journey toward the “Last Mile.” These include defining roles and responsibilities of public and private information goods, establishing key partnerships required for the design, development and potential commercialization of “Last Mile” products and services, and developing integrated communications strategies. A notable side event, The Climate Action Hackathon, will also take place in parallel to generate ideas for Last Mile products and services from the application development community and local media.

Ample time will be provided for interactive discussion between project managers, implementing agency officials and the Last Mile application development community in order to more deeply explore the development of workshop ideas within each national project.

Main Goals

  • Understand challenges and opportunities for UNDP-supported Climate Information and Early Warning Systems projects as we journey toward the last mile
  • Share best practices, innovative technologies and cutting-edge methodologies
  • Define actionable recommendations to cover the “Last Mile”
  • Build relationships and partnerships
  • Ensure long-term sustainability
  • Embrace innovation
  • Connect, listen, explore


Presentations - Day 1

Presentations - Day 2

Country Presentations

Mobile APP

Climate Action Hackathon

Big Ideas, Visionaries, Amateur Forecasters and Computer Developers Welcome at UNDP Climate Information for a Resilient Africa Event. Learn More



25-27 August, 2015, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

UNDP CIRDA Country Project Managers Workshop

This workshop hosted by the UNDP’s Programme on Climate Information for Resilient Development in Africa (CIRDA) brings together country project managers, technical advisories, meteorologists and hydrologists, and experts on public-private partnerships, communications and development to explore innovative approaches and new technologies to strengthen and sustain climate information and early warning systems in Africa.

The meeting offers an opportunity for collaboration and knowledge sharing between in-country leadership teams from 11 African nations. Sessions focus on technical support mission planning, reports from the Strengthening National Climate Information/Early Warning System (CI/EWS) Projects, public-private partnership market studies, support for the procurement of Hydro-Meteorological technology, and covering the “Last Mile.”

Unique country clinics bring country project managers together with experts from the CIRDA Programme to discuss innovative climate and weather information
technologies, new approaches and cutting-edge applications of climate data.

The meeting is hosted at the UNDP Regional Service Center for Africa (RSC). Powerpoint presentations and videos from the event will be shared on this page as they become available.



Introductions, Meeting Goals and Strategies

Reports from Strengthening National Climate Information/ Early Warning System (CI/EWS) Projects

Day 1

Day 2





3 March, 2015, Kampala, Uganda- Workshop on Creating Value Added Weather and Climate Services through Innovative Public Private Partnerships

The UNDP-CIRDA Programme and the Government of Uganda held a training workshop at the Golf Course Hotel in Kampala aimed at building sustainable climate change adaptation and economic development plans. The workshop will support National Hydrological and Meteorological Services (NHMS) in Africa create value added weather and climate services by engaging with the private sector and developing innovative public private partnerships. 

The workshop brought together government representatives, the private sector, international experts, representatives from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and UNDP.  Discussions were held with representatives from agriculture, financial, aviation and telecommunication sectors on how to  meet their needs and best engage them through the use of new technologies to communicate timely and reliable climate information to support national development. 

Long term financial sustainability of national weather and climate services was a key topic  addressed during this two day event.  As governments deal with budget constraints on many fronts, limited budget resources are a challenge for NHMS in their attempts meet the information needs of local populations. Conversations were centered on analyzing the potential for generating revenue to support the sustainability of weather and climate services, including opportunities for collaboration with mobile phone companies and establishing succesful public private partnerships. These discussions led to the development of country action plans to provide a pathway forward in CIRDA's 11 partner countries.

Workshop Agenda

Workshop Logistic Note

Official Press Release

Workshop Minutes

Action Plans


Day 1

Day 2

CIRDA Partner Country Presentations



14 October, 2014, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania- Workshop on a Systems Approach to Designing, Implementing, and Utilizing Observing Networks

UNDP’s Multi Country Support Programme to Strengthen Climate Information and Resilience Development in Africa (CIRDA), in close collaboration with the UNDP Country Office in Tanzania, held a training workshop on a Systems Approach to Designing, Implementing, and Utilizing Observing Networks from 14 to16 October, 2014, at the Hotel White Sands in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

The workshop provided training to Directors of the National Meteorology and Hydrology Services (NHMS), Directors of the NHMS Observation Networks, CIRDA country managers, and other interested CIRDA partners, by introducing a systems approach to the design, implementation, and utilization of observing networks. Training sessions were led by international professionals in the fields of meteorology, surface observations, data quality, private sector engagement, and climate technologies. The event also provided an opportunity for country representatves to present their progress on implementing local and national early warning systems (EWS) with the support of the Programme. The workshop discussion resulted in the development of country posters that detailed national observing networks.

Click here for the agenda workshop

Workshop Participants

Links to Presentations:

Click here to see a video on the EWS in Benin and its success in alerting local populations on hazardous floodings.

Click here for a fact sheet on Sao Tome and Principe's EWS

Country posters detailing national observing networks



20 May, 2014, Nairobi, Kenya- Roundtable on Strengthening Development of Weather, Climate and Hydrology related Early Warning Systems in Africa

Development banks, intergovernmental agencies and meteorological services working in Africa to support the development of climate information and early warning systems across Africa met in Nairobi to communicate and raise awareness of ongoing and planned iniatives.  This event is an example of the ongoing  coordination between programmes and agencies to assure that all iniatives are in keeping with development and adaptation needs. Discussions served to highlight the complementary nature of regional activities directed at enhancing climate information systems. 

CIRDA Programme Manager, Bonizella Biagini, presented the aims, objectives, actions and scope of the CIRDA Programme.

Click here for presentation.

Presentations were also made by representatives from UNESCO, WMO, AFDB, Kenya's Metorological Service, ICPAC, NDMA, UNEP and the UN's International System for Disaster Reduction.

For a full summary of the event, click here.



13 April, 2014, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia- Launch of the Multi Country Support Programme to Strengthen Climate Information Systems in Africa

Representatives from UNDP's GEF Unit met in Ethiopia on April 13-14 with high level representatives from Benin, Liberia, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Sao Tome and Principe, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia to launch the Multi Country Support Programme to Strengthen Climate Information Systems in Africa. The Honorable Ministers of Environment from Uganda, Sao Tome and Principe as well as the Executive Chairperson of the Environment Protection Agency of Sierra Leone were present to celebrate the Programme's onset.

As a highlight to the workshop, an Expo with 13 meteorological companies and service providers was held to introduce government representatives to the cutting edge technologies available in the collection, processing and dissemination of climate information.


Links to Presentations

Workshop Participants


Map Caption: 

The CIRDA Programme is based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and provides technical support and expertise to Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems Projects in 11 African least developed countries.



News and Updates: 



Video Playlist

Livefeed - Climate Action Hackathon - Leveraging Weather and Climate Data to Create Solutions for Adaptation

May 24, 2016, 18:30 (CEST) Bonn, Germany | Post questions on Twitter @unfccc_ccstudio
With obsolete or malfunctioning technologies, dozens of local languages, high-levels of illiteracy, and limited electricity and access to media, many vulnerable communities in Africa do not receive reliable weather reports, and only a few nations possess the ability to issue early warning messages and reach the “last mile.” In response to this challenge, this past March in Zambia the UNDP’s CIRDA Programme launched a Climate Action Hackathon. The event engaged young African developers to create innovative software focused on communicating directly with end users. The livestream of the side event at the May Bonn Climate Change Conference will present a practical demonstration of the innovative solutions that were developed by the hackers to provide weather information for specific end users, including farmers, vulnerable communities and policymakers to inform adaptation actions. The side event will also introduce the results of a Market Study on revenue generating opportunities for weather services in Africa.

CIRDA and CI/EWS Projects In The News

Tanzania: Free Mobile Phones to Boost Awareness On Climate, Weather
All Africa
Wednesday 19 April 2017

The government has embarked on issuance of free mobile phones to local farmers to facilitate direct channeling of information on climate, weather and related disasters to peasants for increased awareness. The initiative has been hatched under the 'Strengthen Climate Information and early Warning System,' the programme that the Disaster Management Department in the Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is executing. Read more


New GEF Least Developed Countries Fund Project Supported by UNDP to Detect Lightning in Uganda
Uganda Oberserver
20 May 2016
...The Uganda National Meteorological Authority (UNMA) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have joined hands to strengthen climate information and early-warning systems [in Uganda]. Their initiative would, among other things, detect lightning and inform people to move away from known lighting hotspots... Read More


Procurement Assistance

As part of the CIRDA Programme’s objective to enhance national capacities in monitoring and forecasting extreme weather, hydrology and climate change, UNDP-GEF and UNDP's Procurement Support Office (PSO) have established a collaboration framework under the CIRDA Programme to support  partner countries in the procurement of weather, climate and hydrological monitoring infrastructure and new technologies.

Procurement support includes: a) reviewing technical specifications and Terms of Refrence (ToRs) developed by requisitioning units & projects; b) feedback and recommendations pertaining the suitability of technical specifications/requirements to conduct procurement processes; c) market research and sourcing activities to ensure awareness and interest of relevant supplier base; d) review of procurement documents submitted by requisitioning units/projects; e) assistance to Country Offices (COs) & projects with procurement related clarifications during tender processes; f) reviewing submissions to contract review committees and provide recommendations to COs and projects; g) assistance and backstopping support to ensure satisfactory completion of vendor’s contractual obligations and; h) developing managing and maintaining, suitable procurement tools, systems, mechanisms, agreements and contracts to ensure reliable on-going supply chain mechanisms.

In collaboration with CIRDA experts on alternative technologies, the PSO Unit has developed a fact sheet to serve as a support guide to partner countries in their efforts to procure new technologies.

The PSO Unit has also created an online platform with various resources to help country offices and partners. This information is available at the following websites:

UNDP-GEF Procurement Tools & Knowledge Sharing

Long Term Agreements (LTAs) and their corresponding Standard Operation Procedures (SOP)

For any questions please feel free to contact Mettelena Herring at

Display Photo: 

Climate Change Adaptation in the Delta State of Nigeria (TACC)

The Down to Earth: Territorial Approach to Climate Change (TACC) is part of a partnership between the United Nations and sub-national governments for fostering climate friendly development at the sub-national level. This partnership is a collaborative effort involving UNDP, UNEP and eight associations of regions.

In December 2009, Delta State of the Federal Republic of Nigeria signed a Memorandum of Understanding on TACC with UNDP as part of its efforts to tackle environmental devastation arising from climate change. Being an oil and gas producing state, Delta State is well positioned to seize opportunities from climate change mitigation actions. At the same time, being a coastal state, Delta State is particularly vulnerable to sea water rise and therefore has to develop a strategy to analyze the present and future vulnerability of the state.

The design of the Delta TACC has taken the unique situation of the state as an oil production state into account and the needs and overall objectives of the State Government. Delta State expects that the partnership with UN through TACC and other programmes and organisationswill assist the state government in developing capacity to assess the level of environmental damage caused by oil pollution and rising sea level. Delta State considers the Delta TACC as a strategic initiative that can assist the government in carrying out an environmental diagnosis, which reviews the state of the environment, including the impacts of oil and gas production activities and land use on ecosystems.

The TACC Nigeria project will support the integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures into sustainable development planning and programming in developing countries by:

  • Establishing partnership, coordination and participation platform for climate change planning and programming;
  • Building capacity to integrate climate change issues into regional development plans and actions;
  • Formulating an Integrated Territorial Climate Plan (ITCP);
  • Formulating a climate change policy and investment package, i.e., a portfolio of CC adaptation and mitigation policy and investment projects to be implemented by combining and sequencing different financial opportunities; and
  • Producing and disseminating lessons learned & best practices within and beyond Nigeria.

Click here for more information on the Overall TACC Project.

Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
POINT (5.77880859375 6.00945316308)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
The beneficiaries of the Down to Earth TACC project are sub‐national authorities who seek technical assistance in understanding and responding to climate change.
Funding Source: 
Project Details: 


The Down to Earth: Territorial Approach to Climate Change (TACC) project aims to assist regional and local governments in developing countries in:

  • Developing integrated climate change strategies and action plans to assess development options that are robust enough to withstand different future climatic conditions.
  • Strengthening capacity of sub‐national authorities to integrate climate change into sustainable development planning and programming.
  • Identifying no regrets/negative costs/low‐cost adaptation and mitigation measures that promote long‐ term sustainability and poverty reduction.
  • Enhancing the capacity of regional and local government to enact regulatory measures, as well as to take advantage of new sources of environmental finance, to implement these no regrets/negative cost/low‐cost options.
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 


The overall objective of the project, namely supporting low-carbon and climate change-resilient local development in Nigeria, will be achieved by supporting local decision-makers and planners to design integrated climate change (adaptation and mitigation) policies, strategies and formulate concrete actions and investment plans that promote long-term sustainability and poverty reduction in the context of local / regional development.

  • Output 1. Partnership, coordination and participation platforms for climate change planning and programming established
  • Output 2. Capacity to integrate climate change issues into regional development plans and actions built
  • Output 3. Integrated Territorial Climate Plan (ITCP) formulated
  • Output 4. Climate change policy and investment package developed
  • Output 5. Lessons learned and best practices disseminated
Benoit Lebot
UNDP Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
Project Status: