Strengthening monitoring and evaluation for adaptation planning in the agriculture sectors

The importance of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of climate change adaptation has been highlighted at global level, including under the Paris Agreement. Simultaneously, adaptation M&E systems are beginning to emerge at the national level in the context of national planning and budgeting processes. This technical guidance note details how to develop M&E systems for adaptation planning in agriculture sectors.

M&E training package

In addition, the programme has developed an M&E training package intended to support countries to advance on reporting on M&E for adaptation at sectoral level. The package is organized according to eight training modules, including presentations, exercises and case studies for countries to use during a three- to four-day workshop. The modules can be shared upon request explaining how they will be used, by sending an email to

Thematic modules

Module 1: Global policy context for climate change adaptation 

Objective: Understand the key reporting requirements of three international agreements that are shaping the global response to climate change, disaster risk reduction and sustainable development (PA, Sendai Framework and SDGs)

Module 2: Climate change adaptation and agriculture

Objective:  Reach a shared understanding of what is climate change adaptation and relevant hazards, risks, impacts and vulnerabilities, as well as potential adaptation options in the agriculture sectors

Module 3: Introduction to M&E of adaptation 

Objective: Reach a shared understanding of the purpose, objectives and scales of M&E of adaptation. Introduction to available tools and methods for doing M&E, presentation of relevant national and sectoral experiences.   

Module 4: Climate change and national policy context 

Objective: Review the national policy context for M&E for adaptation in the agriculture sector, overview of existing adaptation M&E systems and relevant sectoral, sub-national, program M&E systems

Module 5: Adaptation information under the ETF

Objective: Modalities, Procedures and Guidelines (MPGs) of the Enhanced Transparency Framework.

Module 6: Theory of change for adaptation in the agriculture sector 

Objective: Define the purpose and objective of the M&E framework on the basis of a review of long-term adaptation goals and TOC for adaptation in the agriculture sector from key existing national policies, strategies and plan (e.g. NAP, NDC).

Module 7: Design the M&E Framework 

Objective: Design the adaptation M&E Framework for broad stakeholder validation. Concrete experiences from developing countries are also presented.

Module 8: Indicators for adaptation and agriculture 

Objective: Review a set of draft indicators and prioritise those that are relevant for the country. Assess data availability; resources required; set baselines and targets.

Module 8.1: Process indicators 

Objective: Overview of what process indicators are, how can process indicators be used, and a method for assessing process indicators using scoreboards, with country examples.

Module 8.2: Vulnerability indices 

Objective: Presents worldwide used harzards, vulnerability and risk datasets.

Module 9: Operationalisation of the adaptation M&E Framework 

Objective: Definition of an operationalization plan, identification of financial and human resources, institutional arrangements for reporting. Final presentation of M&E Framework and plan to key decision-makers.

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