Taxonomy Term List
Argentina is considered a high-income economy with a GDP of US$600 billion in 2016 and a population of over 44 million. In the last decades, the country has experienced a marked growth on its agriculture and food sectors, accounting to 54 percent of its land use, and playing a strategic role on the socio-economic development of the country, with 54 percent of employment. Agriculture and animal husbandry and fragile ecosystems are also especially vulnerable to the intensification of extreme climate events, affecting the production and supply of food on national and global scale. The country is considered a top emitter for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land-use, contributing to 2.1 percent of the global emissions, and with domestic emissions made up of livestock (21.6 percent); agriculture (5.8 percent) and Land-Use Land-Use Change and Forestry LULUCF (9.8 percent).
In 2016, Argentina submitted its NDC, identifying several agriculture-related priorities. Argentina has prioritized the development of adaptative capacities and promoted the strategic role of the agricultural sectors as a solution to climate change. In 2020, the country signed the new United Nation Strategic Cooperation Framework (2021-2025) and confirmed its interest to push forward the agenda that seeks to enhance ambition and catalyze action for land-use and agriculture. Argentina submitted its revised NDC in December 2020, ratifying a more ambitious commitment to the Paris Agreement and providing a specific and broader role to adaptation, with the national goal of decreasing 19 percent of its total GHG emissions by 2030, compared to the historical peak of 2007, and 25.7 percent compared to the previous NDC. The country has committed to elaborate its Long-Term Climate Strategy by the end of 2021.
Costa Rica is in Central America and has a varied topography that includes coastal plains separated by rugged mountains, including over 100 volcanic cones and inhabits around 5 percent of the planet’s biodiversity. Costa Rica is among global leaders in responding to climate change, with a long history of environmental protection, sustainable development, and action on climate change mitigation. Costa Rica’s vulnerability to extreme climate events and natural hazards is a result of the presence of populations in areas prone to volcanic eruptions and in unstable lands, degraded by wide-spread cattle ranching, or in poorly planned settlements prone to landslides and flooding. A total of 36 percent of Costa Rica’s land use is attributed to agriculture, and it accounts for 14 percent of the country’s employment.
Costa Rica’s Costa Rica National Climate Change Adaptation Policy (2018-2030), states the priorities with respect to agricultural sustainable production, namely the 1) promotion of adaptation based on ecosystems outside the State's natural heritage, through the conservation of biodiversity in biological corridors, private reserves and farms under forest regime 2) promotion of water security in the face of climate change, through the protection and monitoring of sources and proper management of hydrological basins. The National Development Plan (2019-2022) reaffirmed the ambitious goal to promote a carbon neutral economy by 2021 and laid out strategies to promote renewable energy, reduce GHG emissions, and consider adaptation initiatives.
In 2016, Costa Rica submitted its first NDC. Costa Rica’s National Climate Change Adaptation Policy (2018-2030), as well as the National Decarbonization Plan (2018-2050) and the NAMA coffee, NAMA livestock, NAMA sugarcane and NAMA Musaceae, reflect the continued commitment of the country towards the ambitious goal to promote a carbon-neutral economy, while implementing the adaptation agenda. In December 2020, Costa Rica submitted its revised NDC, including a climate change adaptation component with clear commitments for 2030.
Côte d’Ivoire is located in West Africa along the Gulf of Guinea with the Atlantic running along its southern edge. As a top world exporter of cocoa and cashews and with 70 percent of the working population employed in the agricultural industry, Côte d’Ivoire is vulnerable to variations in weather and climate as well as external shocks in its export trade. Côte d’Ivoire has the second largest economy in West Africa. High rainfall in the south fuels a fertile agricultural industry, which contributes to 27 percent of GDP. A heavy economic reliance on agriculture, in addition to continued environmental degradation and deforestation all contribute to the country’s vulnerability to climate change. In addition, the agriculture and land use sectors hold an 18 percent share of the country's total GHG emissions.
The Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development (MINEDD) of Côte d‘Ivoire is the key coordinating body for formulating and updating climate and environmental policies for sustainable development. Côte d’Ivoire ratified the Paris Agreement in 2016 and submitted their first NDC the same year. The NDC intends to reconcile development and reduction of GHG emissions. Due to the country’s vulnerability to climate change impacts, especially in the key agricultural exports sector, adaptation is also a priority.
The revision of the NDC ahead of COP26 in 2021 is ongoing, and the NAP process has been underway in Côte d’Ivoire since 2015. The adaptation planning is crucial in 11 identified priority sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change, including agriculture, forestry, land use and gender as a cross-cutting theme. The second generation National Agricultural Investment Program 2017-2025 aims to increase added value of agricultural products; strengthen agricultural production systems that are respectful of the environment; and promote inclusive growth.
Most of Egypt’s population and infrastructure are concentrated in the Nile Delta and along the Mediterranean coast, which makes the country vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise, particularly inundation and saltwater intrusion. Most agricultural production is concentrated near the banks of the River Nile, and agriculture is the biggest employer with over 31.2 percent of the total population. Agriculture contributed 14 percent to GDP in 2009 and contributes 10 percent of the country's total emissions. Agriculture is the biggest consumer of freshwater resources – over 80 percent. In the agricultural sector, climate change studies expect that the productivity of two major crops in Egypt - wheat and maize – will be reduced by 15 percent and 19 percent, respectively, by 2050.
In 2011, a National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction was released. This strategy lays out the path to overcome the challenges raised by climate change and estimates the investment required to reach its strategic goals. Egypt ratified the Paris Agreement in June 2017 and submitted their NDC, which focuses on the sustainability of agriculture, the environment, water resources, energy, and land management as priority areas.
The NDC outlines Adaptation Action Packages with specific adaptation goals for the most vulnerable sectors, including agriculture. Such adaptation actions include building an effective institutional system to manage climate change associated crises and disasters at the national level. There is strong political will to address the impacts of climate change in all vulnerable sectors (agriculture, health, energy, tourism, water, and coastal zones). The UNDP-supported Green Climate Fund-financed National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Readiness Programme has been established and is in an initial phase of implementation. This NAP programme targets support to build climate resilience in Egypt by improving institutional and technical capacity for climate change adaptation (CCA) planning, examining climate risks, determining CCA priorities, integrating CCA into national and sectoral planning and budgeting, and increasing investment in adaptation actions. There is a large and fast-growing small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) sector and a large domestic market, with potential for improving integration of private sector actors in agriculture in national climate change action.
Ethiopia is a landlocked country in Northeast Africa and has a population of over 104.9 million. The country has long been coping with extreme weather events, such as severe floods, droughts and desert locust invasion. Future climate variability and change are expected to worsen these conditions, potentially accelerating already high levels of land degradation, soil erosion, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, desertification, recurrent floods, as well as water and air pollution. In Ethiopia, agriculture and land-use are high GHG emitting sectors with around 80 percent of domestic emissions. Agriculture plays an important role in the country’s economic strategy and food security, by providing livelihoods and employment to 95 percent of the population.
Ethiopia submitted its first NDC in 2017, in support of the country’s efforts to realize its development goals as laid out in its Growth and Transformation Plan II and its Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) Strategy. Ethiopia’s NDC will help operationalize green growth - within the country’s development and economic planning. Transforming crop and livestock production systems and value chains for food security, together with re-establishing forests for ecosystem services, constitute key pillars in Ethiopia’s strategy for climate resilience and inclusive green growth. The NDC mitigation component includes improving crop and livestock production for food security and farmer incomes and protecting and re-establishing forests for their economic and GHG storage capacity. The adaptation component stresses the importance of mainstreaming adaptation into all national processes and engaging with farmers and pastoralists.
Ethiopia submitted a National Adaptation Plan (NAP-ETH) in March 2019. NAP-ETH focuses on the sectors that have been identified as most vulnerable, namely: agriculture, forestry, health, transport, power, industry, water and urban. Within these sectors, 18 adaptation options have been identified for implementation at all administrative levels and across different development sectors, recognizing the considerable diversity in context and vulnerability across Ethiopia’s regions and social groups. Ethiopia is working to integrate climate information into planning and decision-making for development interventions, and prioritizing climate resilience across policies to improve the adaptive capacity at national/federal, regional and Woreda levels. The plan is guided by the principles of participation, coherent interventions, stakeholder empowerment, gender sensitivity, equitable implementation and partnership.
Senegal is a Sahelian country located in West Africa with a steadily growing economy over recent years. However, poverty in Senegal is still prevalent in rural areas, where roughly 60 percent of the population resides. The other 40 percent of the population resides in urban areas, where the majority live in rapidly growing urban suburbs. Low agricultural production, limited capacity of the economy to create sustainable jobs, and inadequate resource allocation for social services contribute to poverty. Senegal is vulnerable to a number of climate-related impacts, such as drought, locust invasion, flooding, sea-level rise, coastal erosion and related health epidemics as well as bush fires. The agriculture sector in Senegal represents 36 percent of its GHG emissions and 16.6 percent of GDP.
The country developed a National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2006 and submitted an INDC in 2015, which outlined Senegal’s plans for mitigation and adaptation. There is strong institutional coordination on climate change in Senegal. The NDC was recently revised and submitted ahead of COP26 in 2021, while sectoral NAPs are currently under development. The Plan for an Emerging Senegal (Plan Sénégal Emergent) reflects the strong political will for development based on more sustainable production patterns and food systems. Since 2019, various actors involved in agroecology in Senegal have come together under the DyTAES (Dynamique pour une Transition AgroEcologique au Sénégal) framework to contribute to the reflections of the Senegalese government with a view to building an agroecological transition policy. FAO has also been supporting Senegal through the “Strengthening National Adaptation Planning Capacities for Food Security and Nutrition” project focusing on an interdisciplinary and multi-stakeholder approach to increase resilience of the agriculture sector.
Uganda experiences the effects of climate change in the form of increased temperatures, frequent disease outbreak and insect infestations, disrupted rainfall patterns, and frequent floods and droughts. While Uganda has progressively undergone social and economic growth and transformation, consequently reducing its poverty rate by 23 percent over the last two decades, sustained gains will require continued investments in agriculture, and the inclusive participation in economic growth of women as well the population reported poor in 2019. With 95 percent of the population engaged in rain-fed subsistence farming for food and cash income, the country’s reliance on rain-fed agriculture remains a risk to economic growth, income of farmers, as well as export earnings. Agriculture contributes up to 40 percent of Uganda’s total GDP and over 90 percent of the country’s foreign exchange earnings. The agriculture sector contributes to 27 percent of emissions, followed by the land-use and forestry sector with approximately 60 percent of emissions.
In its first NDC, Uganda prioritized adaptation. The country is committed to work on reducing climate change vulnerability and addressing adaptation in agriculture and livestock, forestry, infrastructure (with an emphasis on human settlements, social infrastructure and transport), water, energy, health and disaster risk management. Sustainable Land Management (SLM), sustainable natural resources management (mainly wetlands and natural forests restoration, open water bodies protection), and climate-smart agriculture will be scaled up to increase resilience and adaptability at community level and leverage synergies with the county’s land-based mitigation goals.
Uganda was part of the FAO and UNDP supported NAP-Ag Programme and developed a gender responsive NAP-Ag framework. With support from the NAP-Ag Programme, Uganda formulated a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) for the agriculture sector, which now requires support for implementation.
The Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF), established by Canada in partnership with UNDP, aims to strengthen climate-resilient approaches to agriculture and water management, with an emphasis on gender-sensitive approaches. This facility incorporates national projects in Cambodia, Cabo Verde, Haiti, Mali, Niger, and Sudan, that scale up or extend projects previously supported by the Global Environment Facility’s Least Developed Countries Fund (GEF/LDCF). In addition, a global component of the CCAF promotes south-south cooperation and enhance understanding about initiatives that address adaptation, especially the gender dimensions.
The global Facility collects and analyzes information, experiences, and lessons learned emanating from the six national projects to produce and disseminate knowledge that can be shared between the countries and usefully applied in other contexts. The CCAF also helps to broadly inform climate and sustainable development policies at the local, national and global levels, while promoting global exchange of information, experiences, and lessons learned.
Click on the country name below to find out more about each national project.
Project Brief / Fact Sheet
Training & Tools
Programme Related Events
This 5 minute video gives an introduction to the Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF). Established by Canada in partnership with UNDP, the facility aims to strengthen climate-resilient approaches to agriculture and water management, with an emphasis on gender-sensitive approaches.
The CCAF facility incorporates national projects in Cambodia, Cabo Verde, Haiti, Mali, Niger, and Sudan, that scale up or extend projects previously supported by the Global Environment Facility’s Least Developed Countries Fund.
Le Fonds d’Adaptation au Changement Climatique Canada-PNUD aide six pays à se préparer et à répondre aux impacts du changement climatique sur les vies et les moyens de subsistance
Le Fonds encourage l'échange et l'interaction entre ces pays et régions. Pour partager leurs approches novatrices et expériences réussies. Réunir connaissances et expériences est la seule façon de relever le défi du changement climatique.
This short trailer gives an introduction to the Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF). Established by Canada in partnership with UNDP, the facility aims to strengthen climate-resilient approaches to agriculture and water management, with an emphasis on gender-sensitive approaches.
The CCAF facility incorporates national projects in Cambodia, Cape Verde, Haiti, Mali, Niger, and Sudan, that scale up or extend projects previously supported by the Global Environment Facility’s Least Developed Countries Fund.
This photostory illustrates activities being undertaken and results achieved under a Canada-funded climate change adaptation project in Mali.
This video provides an illustration and comparison of the concrete activities and results achieved to adapt to climate change in Cambodia and Sudan. While working in different contexts, both countries are working to address similar challenges related to food security and water management through gender-sensitive approaches. These projects are implemented under the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility- supported by the Global Environment Facility's Least Developed Countries Fund and the Government of Canada.
This video illustrates specific activities and impressive results emerging from the climate change adptation project being implemented in Sudan. Focusing primarily on the State of North Kordofan, resilient agricultural and water management practice are being introduced to address food security and water scarcity issues exacerbated by climate change. This work is part of a project supported by the Global Environment Fund's Least Developed Countries Fund, and the Government of Canada.
As illustrated below, the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility targets and supports three groups of stakeholders through its work:
1) Canada-funded adaptation projects Community of Practice which strengthens implementation of Canada-funded projects by facilitating communication, identifying lessons learned and sharing resources between project stakeholders'
2) Other CCA projects which strengthens and informs other adaptation projects supported by UNDP and other partners by documenting and sharing lessons learned from Canada-funded projects. CCAF projects will also use lessons learned from this wider portfolio to inform implementation.
3) External Partners through communicating and sharing lessons learned from Canada-funded projects and UNDP's broader CCA portfolio with partners and donors.
The global Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility has three key outcomes:
Outcome 1: Global coordination of Canada-UNDP portfolio of climate change adaptation projects is operational and visible
Outcome 2: Global knowledge management of climate change adaptation experience and lessons emerging from Canada-UNDP portfolio of projects is enhanced and effective
Outcome 3: Gender results from Canada-UNDP climate change adaptation project portfolio inform broader adaptation processes.
Global Exchange Workshop - Niamey, 2-5 March 2015: Bringing together a diversity of knowledge and experience is the only way to tackle the challenge of climate change.
The CCAF was established in 2014 to promote south-south cooperation and enhance understanding about initiatives that address adaptation, with a focus on gender dimensions. This Facility focuses on six initiatives supported by Canada, all aiming to strengthen resilient approaches to agriculture and water management. It also provides broader exchange between these projects and other adaptation initiatives supported by UNDP and other partners. Similarly, the ACA regional programme, supported by the Government of Japan, aims to 1) improve climate information systems for informed decision-making and integrated planning approaches; and 2) test and scale up climate risk management measures including weather index insurance and community based adaptation measures, while also enhancing the capacity to access and manage climate finance. These two initiatives jointly hosted the Exchange Workshop in Niamey, Niger from 2-5 March.
Representatives from countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Arab States were brought together to share experiences and document critical lessons and successes emerging from their ongoing projects. The workshop was organized around six thematic issues:
- Climate-related information and services,
- Innovations in water, soil, energy and crop management technologies and approaches,
- Strengthening policy and institutions to better integrate agriculture, food security and climate change,
- Financing measures for resilience,
- Gender-sensitive approaches, and
- Measuring impact of adaptation on development outcomes.
Every participating country shared at least one innovative experience from their project related to these themes, and participants discussed the various processes, challenges and success factors that would allow others to apply the same approach in their countries.
The participants also visited three project sites near Niamey, where adaptation activities are being undertaken with support of the GEF and the Government of Canada. Activities observed included the introduction of new irrigation techniques and supporting women’s collectives engage with alternative income generating activities, such as gardening and livestock fattening. The participants had an opportunity to speak with the beneficiaries directly and understand their experiences and challenges.
This workshop stands as the first step in establishing a community of practice around the issues of adaptation and food security. The information shared will be turned into technical briefings and comparative analyses, and the countries will continue their exchange. A full workshop report is available on the CCAF ALM website here: in English: Proceedings of Global Exchange Workshop - Niamey, 2-5 March 2015, and en Francais: Rapport de l"Atelier International d'Echanges sur l'Adaptation pour la Securite Alimentaire et la Resilience and all of the presentations and workshop materials are available on the Global Exchange Workshop Teamworks Page.
For further information, please contact Jennifer Baumwoll, CCAF project coordinator at Jennifer.email@example.com.
How to get gender-responsive adaptation right
Why is it so difficult to integrate gender into climate change responses? Even with increased emphasis from global policies, donors and funding streams, gender-responsive adaptation is still challenging. Observers mention a number of hurdles such as limited resources, lack of information or deficient expertise —it seems that many practitioners lack an understanding of how to do it. The underlying issue, though, is a refusal to accept that gender-responsive adaptation is better adaptation. We must therefore shift the way that we approach it. Typical solutions to addressing gender in climate change include scattering into proposals and other documents terms like “women” and “equality”, or increasing the number of women beneficiaries in climate projects. In practice, this fails to fundamentally change any part of the underlying design or implementation of a strategy or programme, and therefore has limited impact on ensuring true gender equality. Climate change adaptation is inherently context-specific, and often based on changing behaviour. Climatic changes vary based on the location, as do the social, economic and cultural conditions which define resilience and sustainability. Therefore, when it comes to integrating gender into adaptation, there is no single solution. This is, again, why the challenge is so real.
Enhancing capacities of rural communities to pursue climate resilient livelihood in Sao Tome and Principe
Sao Tome and principe (STP) being a Least Developed Country (LDC) and Small Island Developing State (SIDS), is very vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Coupled by the fact that agriculture, remains the biggest source of incomes for rural families, generating 70% of rural employment and about 80% of export revenues, renders the majority of STP’s populace extremely vulnerable to the vagaries of climate change. Further, the available climatic information indicates that the length of dry seasons is likely to increase in STP.
As a result this UNDP-supported, LDCF project, Enhancing capacities of rural communities to pursue climate resilient livelihood in Sao Tome and Principe, aims to strengthen the resilience of rural community livelihood options against climate change impacts in the Sao Tome districts of Caué, Me-Zochi, Principe, Lemba, Cantagalo, and Lobata (CMPLCL).
(More information to come)
The project has three main components with the following associated outcomes –
- Developing capacities of the key institutions of relevance to rural development and livelihoods to effectively support communities’ resilience and adaptation to climate change. This includes a training programme to provide technical capacity to develop agro-sylvo-pastoral adaptation technologies and climate resilient seeds and seedlings (Outcome 1.1); Design of a human and technical capacity development plans to convert the CATAP to a national agro-sylvo-pastoral climate change adaptation training center (Outcome 1.2); Training of 200 agricultural extension services n adaptation strategies (Outcome 1.3); Creation of districts and village level climate change platforms to facilitate dialogue and coordination for the implementation and monitoring of village and districts level annual adaptation plans (Outcome 1.4); Training of representatives of the districts and villages platforms, district governments assemblies on how to develop, implement and monitor annual adaptation plans (Outcome 1.5) and; Empowering and mobilizing community based organizations to efficiently contribute in the processes of identifying and addressing the underlying causes of vulnerability and developing adaptative practices (Outcome 1.6).
- Investments made for the protection of communities livelihoods against climate risks including the development of small scale community managed infrastructure to fight against climate induced erosion, crop fields flooding etc. (Outcome 2.1) and; Development of extreme climate and weather disaster safety nets mechanisms for managing risks associated with climate variability impacts on foods resources, natural and economic assets and livelihoods (Outcome 2.2)
- Diffusion of climate resilient livelihoods strategies in the most vulnerable communities including the development of district and village annual and multiyear adaptation plans to identify, prioritize, coordinate and implement adaptation actions of the supporting institutions and the communities (Outcome 3.1); Implementation of priority community adaptation projects focusing on enhancement of current livelihoods resilience and livelihood diversification (Outcome 3.2); Development of agro-sylvo-pastoral adaptation technologies and climate resilient seeds and seedlings (Outcome 3.3) and; Design of micro-credit products to increase resilience of current livelihoods and support alternatives income generating activities in village adaptation plans (Outcome 3.4)
(More information to come)
(More information to come)
Building Adaptive Capacity and Resilience of Women and Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Climate change and its effects on rainfall patterns and temperatures are exacerbating the vulnerability of rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Women in particular, who represent 60% of agricultural labourers and 73% of farmers, and produce 80% of food crops for household consumption, are at risk. Several dynamics make their adaptation more difficult such as lack of access to formal education, economic poverty, food insecurity, limited access to resources, etc. These inequalities increase women’s vulnerability to harmful climate change impacts while limiting their options for coping and adaptation.
The GEF-LDCF funded project, Building Adaptive Capacity and Resilience of Women and Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, seeks to support women and children through a community-centred approach to adopt and adapt livelihood strategies in innovative ways based on current and future climate changes scenarios.
More Information to come...
The project has two main components with the following outcomes –
- Climate resilient diversification practices to secure communities livelihoods including the development of profitable climate resilient alternative livelihoods involving aquaculture, livestock and agriculture products by women groups to increase sources of revenue and improve family nutrition (Outcome 1.1); Installation of at least 200 unsophisticated food processing units (oil presses, presses and grated cassava, husking machines and millers, etc.) and fish conservation units by women's groups (Outcome 1.2); Production and distribution of certified adapted varieties of at least 400 seeds multipliers through support of 50 women groups (Outcome 1.3); Provision of 4 automated agro-meteorological stations and 400 rain-gauge for tailored agro-meteorological information (Outcome 1.4) and; Installation of small scale water saving technologies and distribution systems in high climate risks zone (Outcome 1.5)
- Development of key capacities for undertaking climate resilient activities including training and engagement of women's groups in food processing, processing technology, maintenance of units, rural finance, marketing and organization strategies (Outcome 2.1); Engagement of women’s groups in adapted seeds production and diversification, soil fertility and water management activities (Outcome 2.2); Extending support to nearly 10 rural radio stations and 100 community volunteers as well as producers and staffs from extension services to analyse, interpret, produce and disseminate climate and weather information (Outcome 2.3) and; Establishment of community learning mechanisms through website, technical papers, video, technical forums, and other relevant media/social networks (Outcome 2.4).
More Information to come...
More Information to come...