Taxonomy Term List
The project aims to strengthen the national and state level capacity and coordination for climate change adaptation planning and implementation in Somalia. Barriers in effective adaptation include weak institutional coordination and capacity for adaptation planning and implementation at the federal level, a lack of technical, institutional, and managerial capacity for climate change adaptation planning at the state level, and a lack of investment planning and enabling conditions for financing climate change adaptation interventions. The project aims to support the government in overcoming these barriers considering the double challenge Somalia faces - the threats of internal conflict within the region and effects of climate change simultaneously. These unique circumstances require a different approach to addressing climate adaptation priorities, and Somalia’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process must be consistent with these governance challenges with specific attention paid towards the fragility of the country.
The project "Support for Strengthening Climate Change Adaptation Planning for the Federal Republic of Somalia" project is supporting the Government of Somalia to strengthen the national and state level capacity and coordination for climate change adaptation planning and implementation. The project builds on the foundation that was created when the country formulated its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2013. The project addresses the priorities that were elucidated in the country’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and is consistent with the ratified National Development Plan.
Somalia is among the most vulnerable countries to climate change in the world. Somalia’s arid and semi-arid lands make up more than 80% of the country’s landmass and are prone to extreme weather conditions including periods of extended drought, highly erratic rainfall, and strong winds. Droughts occur frequently and are often followed by devastating floods. Recent studies indicate that droughts have intensified in terms of their frequency, severity and geospatial coverage over the last 50 years. Flooding and droughts have been identified as the primary climate threats in Somalia’s Nationally Determined Contributions. Climate impacts multiply existing threats to the attainment of food and water security, productive livelihoods, health and human development capabilities of the people of Somalia. Climate impacts also exacerbate conflicts over natural resources and contribute to the challenges posed by large numbers of internally displaced persons. A major factor contributing to vulnerability is the political instability and internecine conflict that has vexed Somalia since 1991. Somalia’s context of fragility requires that climate adaptation is integrated within the process of dealing with crises and addressing governance challenges to contribute to a greater stability.
The project has three primary outcomes focusing on enhancing the national institutional coordination, strengthening capacity for climate change adaptation planning at the national and state level, and strengthening financial planning for climate change adaptation. Expected results include:
- Climate change adaptation capacities and interagency coordination at key agencies strengthened;
- Tools, methodologies, and information platform to support the NAP process developed;
- State climate change adaptation frameworks developed and harmonized with the national framework;
- Preliminary climate change adaptation plans formulated at the state level;
- Climate change adaptation mainstreamed into institutional and governance support at the state level;
- NAP implementation financing plan formulated.
The project has been designed to integrate with the ongoing nation building and associated initiatives that aim to strengthen governance and institutions. The project activities are planned in states where UNDP already has ongoing operations in order to avoid potential security related risks.
- The project supported the establishment of the National Climate Change Coordination Committee (NCCCC) in collaboration with the Directorate of Environment and Climate Change (DOECC) as per the Climate change policy of Somalia.
- An institutional review of roles and responsibilities of national institutions has been conducted identifying capacity gaps to effectively adapt to climate change within priority sectors and key ministries. The results inform further project activities such as the capacity development at the Directorate of Environment and Climate Change. Currently, a study is being conducted to clarify and formalize the roles of federal, state, and district governments to improve federal-state coordination on the formulation and implementation of policies, strategies, plans, and programs related to climate change adaptation.
- A steering committee was established that will ensure coordination with the 9th National Development Plan (NDP9) Pillar groups and ensure alignment with the national DRR strategy and the Sendai Framework and other relevant programs and initiatives to support the climate change adaptation planning. The Steering Committee consists of government agencies, civil society organizations, state governments, development partners, private sector and others.
Outcome 1: National institutional coordination and capacity for adaptation planning enhanced.
Outcome 2: Strengthened capacity for climate change adaptation planning at the state level.
Outcome 3: Strengthened financial planning for climate change adaptation.
The overall goal of the project is to establish the institutional arrangements and capacities to develop and execute the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to further an overarching approach to adaptation planning and implementation in Tajikistan. The NAP process assists the country’s government in mainstreaming climate change adaptation in policy and planning processes at the national and sectoral levels, enhancing capacities to identify key vulnerabilities and develop effective climate change adaptation projects. Successful design and implementation of a National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy will result in enhanced adaptive capacity and will improve the country’s ability to mobilize private and public sector finance from domestic and international sources to support a pipeline of adaptation and resilience building activities.
The "Enabling an effective National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process for Tajikistan" project supports the Government of Tajikistan to establish the institutional arrangements and capacities to develop and execute National Adaptation Plans to further an overarching approach to adaptation planning and implementation in the country.
Tajikistan has already started to feel the effects of climate change. Temperatures in Tajikistan have consistently increased since the 1930's at an average rate of 0.1˚C/decade. Climate-induced extreme weather events (such as floods, droughts, heatwaves, landslides and avalanches) are expected to increase in both frequency and intensity as a result of warming. Almost one-third of the population lives below the poverty line, which adds significantly to the climate risk vulnerability of a country that is already identified as the most vulnerable among all European and Central Asian countries. Climate change could adversely affect Tajikistan through impacts on social, cultural, economic, and natural resources. The relatively low level of socio-economic development, inadequate infrastructure, and high dependency on climate-sensitive sectors make the country extremely vulnerable to climate-induced extreme events.
The Government of the Republic of Tajikistan has made commitments to confront the challenges of climate change and to implementing the commitments made in its Nationally Determined Contribution. At the national level, to achieve its adaptation goals the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan has developed a National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (NCCAS), which is a long-term statement of priorities with respect to climate change adaptation. The current project addresses identified gaps and barriers to implementation and is consistent with the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan’s vision for the NAP process.
The following results are expected to be delivered through the three outcomes of the project:
- Committee on Environmental Protection is strengthened as the lead agency and coordinating body for climate change adaptation.
- Statistics Agency develops and implements national indicators and reporting methodology for climate change adaptation planning and implementation.
- Climate Change Center knowledge management capabilities are strengthened.
- Mainstreaming of climate change adaptation in priority sector planning and regulatory frameworks is advanced.
- Priority sector vulnerabilities and adaptation options are identified.
- Long-term climate change adaptation capacity development program is established and implemented.
- Establish and institutionalize a financing mechanism for the NAP/NCCAS/NDC implementation.
- Sub-national capacities for climate change adaptation mainstreaming, planning, and project implementation are enhanced.
- Private sector is engaged in climate change adaptation activities at national and sectoral levels.
- The Steering committee has been established with representation of key national institutions and stakeholders.
- The intersectoral working group on integration of climate change adaptation measures into the national planning has been established.
Outcome 1: Governance, coordination and institutional arrangements for climate change adaptation planning and implementation strengthened
Outcome 2: Priority sector adaptation plans developed, capacities strengthened, and long-term capacity development program established
Outcome 3: Implementation capacities for climate change adaptation is strengthened.
Increasing resilience to climate change impacts in marine and coastal areas along the Gulf of Thailand
The project aims to integrate climate change adaptation into marine and coastal area related planning and budgeting in the Gulf of Thailand with a focus on agriculture, fisheries, and tourism. The project builds on Thailand’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process and focuses thematically on marine and coastal areas and sub-national level adaptation planning. The project’s objectives are to be achieved through three key outcomes: enhancing capacities for climate risk-informed marine and coastal area development planning; strengthening NAP implementation and mainstreaming adaptation in planning and budgeting in marine and coastal areas; and developing financing strategies for climate adaptation. This GCF NAP Readiness project is expected to provide an important contribution to the implementation of Thailand’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP), prepared by the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP), which provides an overarching planning framework for addressing climate change adaptation.
The project “Increasing resilience to climate change impacts in marine and coastal areas along the Gulf of Thailand” is designed to contribute to the implementation of Thailand’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP). The main objective of the project is to integrate climate change adaptation into planning and budgeting for marine and coastal areas. The project aims to address barriers that hinder information, knowledge, and coordination for adaptation planning; technical capacities for integration of risk informed approaches in planning and budgeting; and lack of options to attract financing for climate change adaptation, particularly from the private sector.
Marine and coastal areas of the Gulf of Thailand are expected to experience significant impacts of climate change, with increase in extreme events, sea-level rise, climate induced erosion, drought, and flooding that affect local tourism, agriculture, fisheries, natural resources and create additional stress on land and water resource management. Vulnerability is heightened due to the dependence on a limited number of economic sectors, namely agriculture and tourism. Due to their low coping capacity, limited awareness of and high exposure to climate change risks and impacts, women, young children, the elderly, the disabled, and economically marginalized social groups are the most affected by unmitigated climate change impacts and fewer income and employment generation opportunities. Therefore, there is a clear need for capacity building in communities, decision-makers, and the private sector to raise awareness about climate change risks and facilitate adaptive development planning.
The project complements other initiatives supporting the NAP implementation in Thailand. Thailand’s NAP (draft prepared in 2018) identified six key sectors: (1) water management; (2) agriculture and food security; (3) tourism; (4) public health; (5) natural resource management; and (6) human settlement and security. This project will focus on addressing gaps of current support programmes. The project will work towards improving climate-responsive natural resource management through the integrative approach of enhancing adaptation planning and budgeting in key marine and coastal economic sectors, targeting agriculture, fisheries, and tourism. The project will focus on 18 coastal provinces along the Gulf of Thailand. The overall timeline of Thailand’s NAP implementation allows this project to utilize best-practices and information from other interventions, to expand the knowledge-base and regulatory framework, particularly for the sub-national level, and to revise and update Thailand’s NAP. The following sub-outcomes (outputs) are expected to be delivered by the project:
- developed knowledge base on climate change impacts, risk, vulnerabilities, and adaptation options in marine and coastal areas, and disseminated information;
- enhanced technical capacity for planning, budgeting, and implementation of adaptation;
- updated and developed NAP monitoring modalities;
- participatory review, prioritization, and appraisal of adaptation options for climate-induced hazards affecting marine and coastal areas undertaken;
- strengthened institutional coordination for the NAP process;
- improved climate-risk informed business development and planning at the provincial, sub-district, and local levels;
- identified viable options and mechanisms for scaling up adaptation finance, including through public-private partnerships, and drafted financing strategies and concept notes;
- facilitated integration of best practices into the NAP process.
In addition to the organization of in-person and online inception workshops, the project has conducted climate change impact projections, risk, and vulnerability assessment in 4 selected provinces of 18 coastal provinces namely Rayong, Petchaburi, Surattani and Songkhla. Select criteria of each province have been considered including existing climate risk map assessment results and gross provincial product (GPP). The climate change impact projections focused on key climate threats such as flood, drought, sea level rise, and sea surface temperature. Climate risk and vulnerability assessments have been conducted on coastal and marine resources including three key economic sectors - agriculture, fisheries, and tourism. The results of the climate change impact projections, risk and vulnerability assessments are key information to disseminate to public through a climate adaptation platform and geographical information system (GIS) and provides the basis for capacity building and consultations with sub-national government officers and local and other stakeholders. Currently, the platform has been developed and integrating the results of the studies.
Outcome 1: Enhanced capacity and knowledge to enable climate risk-informed marine and coastal area development planning at the sub-national level;
Outcome 2: Strengthened existing NAP implementation and mainstreamed adaptation in planning and budgeting in marine and coastal areas;
Outcome 3: Financing strategies for climate change adaptation in marine and coastal areas identified and developed.
The project aims to assist Morocco in designing a framework for systematic integration of adaptation needs into development planning. The foundations for sustainable finance and institutional framework for adaptation planning will be established both at the national level and in selected regions. The sub-national activities include development of regional adaptation plans for five regions: Souss Massa, Marrakech Safi, Béni Mellal-Khenifra, Draa Tafilalet and Oriental regions.
Morocco, given its geographical location, climate, and coastline, is highly vulnerable to climate change. The projected impacts by 2050 will significantly affect key productive sectors and infrastructures of the Moroccan economy. Morocco started its national adaptation planning process in 2015 and developed a detailed NAP roadmap. Achieved in 2021, the NAP was formulated to provide an overall medium- and long-term adaptation strategy. The NAP outlines key actions and corresponding strategic objectives and is finalized after several consultations with key stakeholders and formally endorsed by the Government.
The Moroccan Climate Change Policy and the NDC (updated in 2021) outline sectoral adaptation goals and targets and highlight critical cross cutting pillars. Despite the various projects and initiatives on climate change adaptation and climate risk management executed in Morocco, climate change risks and adaptation needs are still not systematically considered in development planning and/or investment decisions, particularly at the regional level.
The project “Supporting the foundations for sustainable adaptation planning and financing in Morocco” builds upon the progress to date and helps operationalize the NAP with a strong focus on the subnational level and translating the strategic objectives into concrete actions. It also links to various initiatives on adaptation and climate risk management implemented in Morocco. In addition to the main project implementing partner the Ministry of Energy Transition and Sustainable Development, the project works with partners in government, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector.
The project aims to design a framework for systematic integration of adaptation needs into the country’s development planning building upon the existing foundation for climate change adaptation. The expected results are grouped around the three main outcomes and include:
- setting up of coordination and governance structure for adaptation at the national and regional levels;
- strengthening national and regional M&E system;
- improving communication and awareness on adaptation planning;
- mainstreaming gender sensitivity into government’s planning processes;
- assessing climate risks and vulnerabilities for key sectors in three regions;
- identifying adaptation options, assessed and prioritized in the three selected regions;
- elaborating five regional adaptation plans;
- sustainable financing of regional adaptation plans;
- strengthened private sector engagement and investment potential.
While Morocco has developed and executed various projects and initiatives on climate change adaptation and climate risk management, these were executed through isolated projects and in a piecemeal and disconnected fashion, each tackling a specific issue (water, agriculture, disaster risk, monitoring framework, data, capacity building etc.).
Today, climate change risks and adaptation needs are still not systematically considered when planning development and making investment decisions, particularly at the regional level. Morocco NAP-GCF project aims to design a framework for systematic integration of adaptation needs into the country’s development planning building upon the existing foundation for climate change adaptation.
Such a framework would enable the implementation of high-impact adaptation measures building on strengthened institutional arrangements for adaptation planning, including strategic coherent planning instruments aligned with national priorities and sustainable sources of adaptation finance.
The project inception workshop was held in March 2022 with the participation of all project stakeholders and the annual work plan has been approved including among others the development of guidelines for climate information collection and for climate change risk and vulnerability assessments at the regional level for key sectors (water, agriculture and infrastructure).
Outcome 1: The institutional framework for adaptation planning is strengthened and awareness is enhanced at national and regional levels.
Outcome 2: Regional adaptation plans (Territorial Plans against Global Warming) formulated for five vulnerable regions in Morocco and integration into regional development and land use plans facilitated.
Outcome 3: The foundations for sustainable finance for adaptation are strengthened.
The project builds on Serbia’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) commitments to advance medium and long-term adaptation planning in the Republic of Serbia with a National Adaptation Plan (NAP), providing support for iterative improvements to the NDCs under the enhanced transparency framework requirements. The project aims to enable the Government of Serbia to build and strengthen capacities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation, produce actionable climate risk and vulnerability assessments, and implement effective methods, tools and information systems to better inform decision-making on climate risks. Project activities address the main barriers to the integration of climate change adaptation into national, sectorial, and local government planning and budgeting, as well as support the formulation of financing strategies and mechanisms for the scaling up of medium- and long-term adaptation.
The "Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in the Republic of Serbia" project aims to increase the country’s capacity to address its climate change vulnerabilities. The project is proposed in two phases and focuses particularly in the areas related to the agriculture-water management nexus, and the sectors of energy infrastructure, transport infrastructure and construction.
Climate change impacts are already evident in Serbia. The IPCC AR5 has identified southeastern Europe, where Serbia is located, among the most vulnerable regions in terms of exposure to the negative effects of climate change. Climate change is expected to have adverse effects on the intensity and frequency of floods and droughts, and on the quality and quantity of yields of major crops. Serbia’s recent history of floods and natural disasters has shown that rural low-income communities are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to heightened water insecurity, increased health risks and reduced agricultural productivity.
The project builds on UNDP support to Serbia in February 2017 that resulted in a stocktaking report and a plan of action to advance the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process, validated by representatives of key sectors and the Ministry of Environmental Protection. The stocktaking exercise highlighted the existing weaknesses and demonstrated the prevailing barriers to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction planning in Serbia. The results confirmed that to adequately address climate change vulnerabilities, Serbia must overcome its current information gaps, capacity weaknesses, as well as a general lack of awareness of climate change adaptation – both at the national and sub-national levels. The report further identified that climate change is not integrated into existing policies, or their associated budget priorities.
The overall goal of the project is to reduce climate change related risks throughout Serbia by strengthening institutional and technical capacities that support integrated climate change adaptation planning and programming. This will be achieved through three outputs and related sub-outcomes across two phases:
- In the first phase, the emphasis is given to the development and setting up of the national mandate and steering mechanism for long-term climate change adaptation and capacity building for effective development of the NAP implementation strategy. The first phase also focuses on improved management of the adaptation related knowledge and data, addressing institutional capacity gaps and needs in specific sub-sectors and at all levels of governance, establishing a system for effective monitoring and reporting on climate change adaptation measures and actions;
- Building on the results and achievements from the first phase, the second project phase will focus on capacity building for setting up a sustainable financing strategy to support medium- and long-term climate change adaptation. Both project phases will be accompanied by a NAP and adaptation engagement and communications plan and concrete measures at both national and local levels.
In addition to the implementing partner, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, other project partners include the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Ministries in charge of energy, infrastructure and construction, local self-governments, Standing Conference of Towns and Municipalities, Chambers of Commerce, civil society and others.
- “Analysis of available climate and socio-economic information” conducted, establishing the current state-of-play and steps to be undertaken to build and strengthen institutional capacities for climate change adaptation;
- “Institutional capacities for climate change adaptation” report conducted, providing an overview on existing capacities and capacity building needs at the national and local self-government levels;
- “Existing policy, regulatory and institutional framework” report conducted and recommendations on improvement of specific policy and regulatory measures for climate change adaptation prepared;
- Reports on the impacts of climate change on key economic sectors such as agriculture and water management nexus, energy sector, construction and roads infrastructure, forestry and health with recommended adaptation measures;
- Economic assessment of the damage and losses caused by climate change for local self-governments conducted;
- Recommendations for better integration of nature-based solutions into the revised NDCs for Serbia provided;
- Representatives of the line ministries and other authorities participated in trainings, online workshops and consultative meetings on climate change adaptation.
- A series of press workshops held on the topic of climate change in Serbia, involving more than 500 stakeholders, at national and local levels.
Outcome 1: National mandate and steering mechanism in place for long-term climate change adaptation
Outcome 2: NAP implementation strategy developed
Outcome 3: System to monitor progress on adaptation strengthened and financing strategy for medium- and long-term climate change adaptation established.
Inception workshop for the project "Advancing medium and long-term adaptation planning in the Republic of Serbia“ was held together with presentation on funding sources on fight against climate change (2020)
The project aims to help Guinea increase its capacity to adapt to climate change impacts by strengthening linkages between research-policy, mainstreaming climate change adaptation into sectoral and local planning and budgeting and advancing national funding mechanisms and private sector engagement. The project addresses the main barriers that were identified during an earlier stocktaking exercise. The barriers identified include the lack of links between research and policymaking, weak measurement, evaluation and funding mechanisms, and insufficient private sector engagement in the adaptation efforts.
The main objective of the project “Enhancing research and policy linkages to advance National Adaptation Planning in Guinea” is to increase Guinea’s adaptive capacity to cope with climate change impacts. The project is expected to establish research to support informed decision-making and capture opportunities that arise both from public funding and the private sector.
Guinea is experiencing negative socio-economic impacts of climate change due to its exposure to sea level rise, droughts, and flooding. The Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) submitted in 2015 outlines climate change adaptation priorities, such as the preservation and restoration of water resources, protection of ecosystems particularly in coastal zones, and ensuring food security of rural communities.
Based on stakeholder consultations and stocktaking conducted in 2016 and 2018, the main barriers to climate change adaptation mainstreaming and financing were identified as (1) the absence of links connecting research to policy to inform decision-making processes; (2) weaknesses in and/or fragmentation of existing coordination, monitoring & evaluation (M&E), and funding mechanisms; (3) the absence of adaptation in the Planning-Programming-Budgeting-Monitoring and Evaluation (PPBSE) procedures; and (4) lack of private sector involvement in the adaptation landscape.
The project aims to remove these barriers by achieving the following objectives under the three main outcomes:
1. Research-policy linkages and knowledgebase are strengthened to inform adaptation planning and decision-making:
- Establish research-policy linkages to support the NAP (National Adaptation Plan) formulation and implementation;
- Develop a climate risks and vulnerability evidence base that informs the identification and prioritization of adaptation options in the sectors of agriculture, livestock, and forestry.
2. Climate change adaptation mainstreaming is facilitated by reinforcing coordination and M&E mechanisms:
- Operationalize a sustained and suitable coordination mechanism to support mid and long-term adaptation;
- Enhance adaptation mainstreaming into sectoral and local planning and budgeting;
- Establish adaptation M&E mechanisms in adherence with the existing national M&E system.
3. A national funding mechanism and private sector engagement are expanded to support adaptation financing:
- Support the Environmental Safeguard Fund (FSE) mechanism to raise awareness on funding sources and expand mandate for the financing of adaptation actions;
- Enhance the mining sector’s engagement on adaptation and climate financing.
Furthermore, a follow-up project will be proposed to fill gaps identified through this phase and develop Guinea’s NAP document. The results of the current project will inform the proposal, consolidating existing climate risks and vulnerability assessments and prioritization of adaptation options in the priority sectors of agriculture, livestock, forestry, coastal and water resources. The planned second phase will further consider promoting sustainable cities, clean cities, and blue economy for which the national strategy is currently being developed.
In addition to the main project implementing partner, the Ministry of Environment, Water and Forests, and other project partners including the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF), National Directorate of the Environment (DNE)/current National Directorate of Pollution, Nuisance and Climate Change (DNPNCC), sectoral Strategy and Development Offices (BSD), the various research institutes, the Center for Observation, Monitoring and Environmental Information (COSIE), the National Institute of Statistics (INS), the Fund for the Environment and Natural Capital (FECN), the Bauxite Environment Network (REB), Guinea-Ecology, civil society organizations and municipalities.
To date, the Research-Policy Working Group (RPWG) mandate, structure and composition have been elaborated, as well as the Environment and Climate Change Research Plan (PRECC) and the Climate Change Adaptation Policy Indicators Metadata. The project further prepared the report on the collection of data from public services and technical and financial partners for the updating of climate models and projections based on the RCP in Guinea, the analysis of climate projections for Guinea using the RCP reference scenarios and the validation of the projection models, as well as the data collection report on the establishment of a coordination and capacity building system.
Outcome 1: Research-policy linkages and knowledge base are strengthened to inform adaptation planning and decision-making.
Outcome 2: Climate change adaptation mainstreaming is facilitated by reinforcing coordination and monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.
Outcome 3: A national funding mechanism and private sector engagement are expanded to increase climate change adaptation financing.
The project aims to strengthen institutional and technical capacities in Haiti for iterative development of a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) for an effective integration of climate change adaptation into national and sub-national coordination, planning and budgeting processes. This objective is expected to be achieved through advancing existing frameworks and systems, enhancing capacities of various stakeholders to effectively contribute to the process and establishing a mechanism to sustain the NAP process beyond this project.
Funded by the Green Climate Fund (GCF) Readiness Programme, the "Integrating climate change risks into national development planning processes in Haiti" project is supporting the Government of Haiti to strengthen institutional and technical capacities for iterative development of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) for an effective integration of climate change adaptation into national planning and budgeting processes.
The project builds on lessons from the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) implementation, as well as complementary activities currently underway in Haiti to avoid duplication of efforts. In integrating climate change adaptation into development plans, the project seeks to align with inclusive climate change adaptation priorities into the country’s visionary Strategic Development Plan (PSDH), National Land Use Plan (SNAT) and its Disaster Risk Reduction Plan and Strategy.
The only Least Developed Country (LDC) in the Caribbean region, Haiti’s primary economic sectors (i.e., agriculture, forestry and fishing) are heavily affected by climatic events. More than 50 percent of Haiti’s population lives below the poverty line, with 20.1 percent of people living in extreme poverty. According to the World Bank’s Climate Change Overview Country Summary (2022), political violence, economic imbalance, and population pressure has led to extreme environmental degradation in Haiti, with an estimated 98 percent of forests cleared for fuel. These destabilizing forces have left most Haitians extremely vulnerable to natural disasters. Haiti has embarked on many initiatives to strengthen its resilience to climate change. However, fragmented policies and data, weak technical capacity and inadequate climate financing, among others, hamper the country’s efforts to plan effectively and iteratively for medium-to long-term climate risks in its development planning and budgeting.
The project is informed by stakeholder consultations, stocktaking of existing initiatives, policies, and strategies in Haiti that were conducted by the National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme in 2017, which resulted in an action plan to implement the NAP. The Stocktaking Report highlighted the limitations and gaps including insufficient technical and institutional capacity to effectively coordinate and implement climate change adaptation measures; scattered data and information-sharing on climate change impacts and adaptation interventions; limited capacity to monitor climate change adaptation and inform policies; and inadequate budget allocations. These serve as the basis for the activities proposed in the project which were further confirmed by stakeholders.
The project is expected to deliver the following results under the three key outcomes:
- Capacities of the Technical Working Group, particularly MDE (Ministry of Environment) and MCPE (Ministry of Planning), to steer the climate change coordination and integration process are developed;
- Institutional barriers to the integration of climate change into development planning and policies are reviewed and key stakeholders are sensitized to climate change adaptation and development linkages;
- Mechanisms for regularly updating and reviewing adaptation are strengthened and feed into the iterative adaptation planning process;
- Haiti's National Adaptation Plan is developed;
- A system for economic analysis and appraisal of adaptation options is established and adaptation priority interventions are integrated into the SNAT, PSDH and PNGRD;
- Universities and educational institutions are capacitated to support adaptation initiatives and the NAP process;
- Financing and Investment Strategy for the NAP is developed through a gender responsive consultative process;
- Private sector engagement in climate change adaptation is strengthened.
The NAP has been developed and validated by both the MDE (Ministry of Environment) and MCPE (Ministry of Planning); the regulatory framework and the vulnerabilities of priority sectors such as health, agrobiodiversity, and water resources have been assessed; the NAP financing and investment strategy has been developed through broad consultations with diverse stakeholders, including women’s organizations, and the communication strategy for the NAP process has been validated and disseminated across the country. In addition, the project has provided substantial support to various initiatives aimed at revising strategic documents, including the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), the development of an operational plan for the National Risk and Disaster Management Plan (PNGRD) and the reinforcement of the EIS-Haiti database for the monitoring of climate indicators, among others.
The project continuously works on strengthening the capacity of the key technical working group from sectorial ministries. As part of the documentation of lessons learned and best practices of adaptation interventions to encourage scaling up of successful approaches, the project has also compiled several good practices and lessons from adaptation measures. Ongoing collaboration with partners and stakeholders allows the project to continue the implementation and validation of the deliverables while developing synergies between climate change adaptation actions in the field.
Outcome 1: The coordination mechanism for multi-sectoral adaptation planning and implementation is strengthened at different levels
Outcome 2: The NAP is compiled with a strong evidence base for adaptation planning and priorities are integrated into the Strategic Development Plan and the Disaster Risk Reduction Plan and Strategy
Outcome 3: A financing framework for climate change adaptation action in the medium-to long-term is established.
Change Adaptation in Indonesia (RAN-API). The project operates at the national and sub-national levels, with local activities concentrated around the risk-assessment and landscape-based adaptation for the archipelagic island site of Wakatobi. At the national level, the project will support update and strengthening of the RAN-API and enhance the vulnerability monitoring system (SIDIK) incorporating a gender-responsive approach. The project will focus on addressing challenges such as a weak coordination and cross-sectoral information sharing, underrepresentation of vulnerable groups, and lack of adaptation criteria application in budget tagging.
The project “Accelerating Climate Change Adaptation Investment Planning to Enhance Resilience in Indonesia” aims to address the barriers to adaptation planning and ensure that the National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation (RAN-API) is well coordinated, implemented and monitored. The project has both a national and sub-national dimension: at the national level, it supports the next update of the RAN-API and enhance relevant assessment and budgeting systems. At the sub-national level, the project enhances landscape-based adaptation planning approaches in the archipelagic island site of Wakatobi that can potentially be scaled up in the future. The Wakatobi District was chosen as an appropriate piloting site due to its manageable size, coastal location and archipelagic landscape. As a marine national park, it also presents the opportunity of exploring and developing ecotourism as a potential adaptation option.
In Indonesia, the impact of climate change is already felt across many economic sectors. The most dominant disasters in Indonesia are floods, windstorms, landslides, and droughts, and these events are expected to be further exacerbated by the impacts of climate change. The NDC (submitted in 2016, updated in 2021) has identified both mitigation and adaptation priorities to address these threats. Climate change adaptation (CCA) has been already integrated into the country’s development planning through the National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation (RAN-API 2013 – 2025) and the fourth Medium Term Development Plan of Indonesia (RPJMN 2020-2024). While Indonesia’s adaptation planning process is considerably developed, several barriers to enhanced adaptation planning and implementation of adaptation options remain. These include a lack of effective coordination, the absence of an updated adaptation plan, inadequate focus on identifying adaptation options in vulnerable areas, unavailability of detailed information and vulnerability assessments for adaptation planning at national and sub-national levels, and challenges in tracking adaptation-related investments at national and sub-national levels. In addition, the lack of capacity for adaptation planning and budgeting is a cross-cutting issue for national ministries and sub-national governance structures.
The project aims at delivering the following results under the three main outcomes:
- RAN-API coordination and implementation strengthened;
- Legal standing for RAN-API to ensure planning and budgeting related to climate change adaptation in place;
- The RAN-API updated, including the formulation of a comprehensive financing strategy;
- Climate change budgeting system for adaptation enhanced.
- SIDIK enhanced, gender-responsive climate change risk assessment process developed;
- Existing science base for RAN-API reviewed and improved;
- Stakeholder capacity built for climate risk and impact assessment, and identifying suitable adaptation measures.
- Government staff in Wakatobi trained on gender-responsive climate risk assessments;
- Climate risk assessment for Wakatobi islands conducted using landscape-based adaptation;
- Government staff in Wakatobi trained on gender-responsive adaptation planning and budget tagging;
- A gender-responsive adaptation planning and budget tagging system developed and implemented in Wakatobi.
Outcome 1: RAN-API updated and climate change adaptation integrated in budgeting systems;
Outcome 2: Vulnerability and risk assessment process (SIDIK) enhanced at national level for sectors identified in the NDC adaptation component; and
Outcome 3: Integrated risk assessment and landscape-based adaptation planning and budgeting established in Wakatobi.
The project aims to improve Montenegro’s institutional capacity for long term adaptation planning through strengthening its institutional coordination framework, expanding the technical capacities of those responsible and involved in adaptation planning, enhancing the evidence base required for effective decision making, and developing a resource mobilization strategy. The project focuses on the national level and operates across four priority sectors, selected to align with existing government policies: water resources, public health, agriculture, tourism.
The overarching objective of the project “Enhancing Montenegro’s capacity to integrate climate change risks into planning” is to improve the country’s institutional capacity for long term adaptation planning. To achieve this, the project focuses on (1) improving the institutional coordination framework and increasing institutional capabilities, (2) increasing climate information and identifying potential adaptation measures, and (3) identifying financial requirements and resources to fund adaptation investments.
The projected impacts of climate change in Montenegro include increased frequencies and intensities of floods and droughts, water scarcity, and intensification of erosion, sedimentation, snowmelt, sea level rise, as well as damage to water quality and ecosystems. To address the climate change risks, the Government of Montenegro has taken several foundational steps to develop a long-term adaptation planning process that is anchored in the National Climate Change Strategy by 2030 and Montenegro’s National Communication. While these steps provide a starting point, several gaps were identified: (1) An underperforming coordination framework, (2) a lack of institutional capacity, (3) insufficient information, and (4) a lack of finance to fund adaptation investments, and (5) a private sector that has a low capacity to understand and respond to climate vulnerabilities and risks.
This project will help Montenegro lay the groundwork for systemic and iterative adaptation planning through the identification of climate risks and adaptation options. A well-established planning process will lead to improved resilience in four key sectors. This strategic approach will help Montenegro to improve access to international funding sources and the private sector as it relates to the provision of financial resources. The project will also strengthen the awareness and capacities for adaptation planning of multiple stakeholder groups to create a better environment for learning and iterative adaptation planning and action. The project is the first stage (Phase I) of what is intended be a two-staged approach for utilizing the support of the Green Climate Fund for adaptation planning. The second stage will build on Phase I, amongst others, to integrate other sectors into the adaptation planning process, further integrate the private sector and more fully develop financing strategies and tracking of adaptation finance.
National Council for Sustainable Development (NCSD) relaunched.
The NCSD, an advisory body that brings together stakeholders relevant to the adaptation process, was relaunched in December 2021 with the support of the NAP project.
In a broader sense, the main task of the Council is to direct and monitor the implementation of policies that determine the country’s development direction and ensure the sustainability of these policies. The Council is a platform for sharing knowledge, expertise, information and practical experience. In addition to the representatives of relevant institutions, business community and NGOs, the representatives of youth and the media are also members of the NCSD.
The recommendations which resulted from the analysis and evaluation of the Council’s work emphasize the role of consensus in the decision-making process, constructive partnership based on trust and information exchange, inclusive management and creation of a sense of responsibility for the activities and decisions taken, offering space for concrete actions, developing evaluation mechanisms and creating learning opportunities. The Working Group on Climate Change, which will operate within the Council, will focus in particular on providing support to the process of adaptation to climate change.
Capacity assessment conducted
An assessment of the capacity of institutions in terms of adaptation to climate change and green development has been performed.
The evaluation process included more than 300 actors, institutions at the national and local level, public and private companies, operating in various fields. The aim of the assessment was to determine the extent to which the public sector can plan and implement the process of adaptation to climate change, as well as the analysis of needs for capacity building and training of staff to plan and implement this process.
Within this research, the institutions were evaluated in relation to seven elements defined by the Capacity Assessment Tool, specifically designed for the implementation of this activity in Montenegro. The results of the initial analysis indicated a general weak systemic coordination and cooperation in the area of adaptation to climate change. Capacity assessments generally ranged from low to baseline, while strong capacities to respond to climate challenges were not identified for any of the assessed institutions.
Having in mind the mentioned results, the preparation of the NAP became important as an opportunity to establish a framework for a systematic and coordinated response of all relevant institutions.
Outcome 1: Adaptation planning governance, institutional coordination, and technical capacity strengthened;
Outcome 2: An enhanced evidence base for designing gender-sensitive adaptation solutions;
Outcome 3: An adaptation finance mobilization strategy developed.
Argentina is considered a high-income economy with a GDP of US$600 billion in 2016 and a population of over 44 million. In the last decades, the country has experienced marked growth in its agriculture and food sectors, accounting to 54 percent of its land use, and playing a strategic role in the socio-economic development of the country, with 54 percent of employment. Agriculture and animal husbandry and fragile ecosystems are also especially vulnerable to the intensification of extreme climate events, affecting the production and supply of food on a national and global scale. The country is considered a top emitter for agriculture, forestry and other land use sectors, contributing to 2.1 percent of the global emissions, and with domestic emissions made up of livestock (21.6 percent); agriculture (5.8 percent) and land-use change and forestry (9.8 percent).
Argentina’s agriculture is highly innovative and has much to offer in terms of win-win climate actions. It has great potential to scale up actions and production processes that will simultaneously cut mitigate emissions and enhance resilience to improve productivity. Argentina is one of the 100 countries being supported by UNDP’s Climate Promise to enhance their NDCs. The country is also part of FAO’s Sub-Regional Project on "Low Emission Livestock, a contribution to the Sustainable Development of the Sector in South America”, and many other projects related to climate management.
The government of Argentina considers the SCALA programme as strong support for the revision of its NAP in the agricultural sector, and to carry out actions that allow the implementation and achievement of the commitments established in the country’s NDC. The programme will leverage participatory methods to address Argentina’s institutional and financial barriers, which allow for a transformative shift in the agriculture and land use sectors. Moreover, to engage and mobilize the private sector to increase its investments in climate action. With the SCALA programme supporting Argentina over the next five years, UNDP and FAO will strive to foster a more inclusive multi-stakeholder process that eventually meets the needs of smallholder farmers, rural communities, women, and youth, who are the most vulnerable to climate change.
Argentina faces different types of barriers in achieving its adaptation and mitigation goals. There is a lack of planning for sustainable management of native forests `and agri-food systems. There are gaps in the articulation between managing bodies/ministries, as well as inefficient bureaucratic financing channels and there are difficulties for producers to access financing. The objective of the NAP in Argentina is to carry out the process in a participatory manner across managing bodies and ministries. The process requires economic efforts to ensure the full participation of all representatives and to support them in parallel processes for formulating provincial plans.
In 2016, Argentina submitted its nationally determined contribution (NDC) that identified several agriculture-related priorities. Argentina has prioritized the development of adaptative capacities and the promotion of agriculture’s strategic role as a solution to climate change. In 2020, the country signed the new United Nations Strategic Cooperation Framework (2021-2025) and confirmed its interest to push forward the agenda that seeks to enhance ambition and catalyze action for land-use and agriculture. Argentina submitted its second NDC in December 2020, ratifying a more ambitious commitment to the Paris Agreement and providing a specific and broader role to adaptation, with the national goal of decreasing 19 percent of its total GHG emissions by 2030. The country has committed to elaborate its Long-Term Climate Strategy by the end of 2021.
The key priorities communicated for the agriculture and land-use sector focus mainly on prioritization of adaptation, strengthening the role of agribusiness as a source of solutions to climate change, integrating agro-industrial production and encouraging the development of process and product technologies. To support the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process, Argentina is implementing the Readiness Project for the NAP Process, financed by the Green Climate Fund and implemented by UNDP.
Along with these actions, the country aims to strengths the implementation of Minimum Budgets for the Environmental Protection of Native Forests, as well as achieve a substantial reduction in the deforestation rate. To support this goal the country implements the National Forest Management Plan with Integrated Livestock (MBGI), the Forest Watershed Plans and Comprehensive Community Plans (PIC), and the national forest extension system and the Deforestation Early Warning System (SAT). By 2030, the country also expects to deepen the development of fire, flood, and drought prevention measures - of great importance for the agricultural, livestock and forestry sectors.