Rural Development

Taxonomy Term List

Costa Rica REDD+ RBP for results period 2014-2015

Costa Rica became the first Central American country to receive non-reimbursable funds from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), due to its successful results in climate matters by reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), associated with deforestation in the 2014-2015 period.

To know more click here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

English
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-84.133300794927 9.8667166324087)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
USD 54,119,143.00

Costa Rica receives 54 million dollars for its leadership in conservation and action for climate

Costa Rica became the first Central American country to receive non-reimbursable funds from the Green Climate Fund (GCF), due to its successful results in climate matters by reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), associated with deforestation in the 2014-2015 period.

Contacts: 
Vanessa Hidalgo
UNDP
Stephanie Altamirano
MINAE
Ingrid Hernández
UNDP Costa Rica
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

     

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2020 to 2025
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Mar 2020
Description: 
REDD+ RBP Proposal Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
Jul 2020
Description: 
GCF Comments on RBP Proposal (last)
Month-Year: 
Oct 2020
Description: 
REDD+ RBP Proposal Submission (last)/awaiting GCF review/approval
Month-Year: 
Nov 2020
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6447
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 5 - Gender Equality
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Ghana Shea Landscape Emission Reductions Project (GCF)

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) has approved a project worth 54.5 million US dollars to address the alarming deforestation and forest degradation challenges in the Northern Savannah Zone of Ghana, whilst promoting investments in the shea value chain and women’s empowerment. 
 
The ‘Ghana Shea Landscape Emission Reductions Project’, which was approved at the ongoing GCF’s 26th virtual Board Meeting, will be implemented by the Forestry Commission (FC) of Ghana with technical support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), in partnership with multiple national and local institutions, civil society organizations and private sector actors. 
 
The project has leveraged vertical funds, with USD 30,100,000 grant from the GCF, about USD 15 million funding from the Government of Ghana and mobilized about USD 9 million impact investments from the private sector in the shea value chain.
 
The project’s interventions are expected to result in the restoration of 200,000 hectares of off-reserve savanna forests and 300,000 hectares of degraded shea parklands as well as the establishment of 25,500 hectares of forest plantations in severely degraded forest reserves. It is expected that the activities will result in an estimate of over 6 million tCO2e in emission reductions and removals over the first seven years of the project’s lifetime and 25.24 million tCO2e over 20 years.
 
To know more click here
 
English
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-2.0654296943166 6.9218843778544)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
USD 30,100,000.00
Project Details: 
The Green Climate Fund (GCF) has approved a project worth 54.5 million US dollars to address the alarming deforestation and forest degradation challenges in the Northern Savannah Zone of Ghana, whilst promoting investments in the shea value chain and women’s empowerment. The ‘Ghana Shea Landscape Emission Reductions Project’, which was approved at the ongoing GCF’s 26th virtual  Board Meeting, will be implemented by the Forestry Commission (FC) of Ghana with technical support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), in partnership with multiple national and local institutions, civil society organizations and private sector actors.
 
The project has leveraged vertical funds, with USD 30,100,000 grant from the GCF, about USD 15 million funding from the Government of Ghana and mobilized about  USD 9 million impact investments from the private sector in the shea value chain.
 

 

Contacts: 
Ms. Praise Nutakor
Head of Communications of UNDP Ghana
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

  

Display Photo: 
Project Dates: 
2021 to 2028
Timeline: 
Month-Year: 
Jun 2018
Description: 
GCF FP Submission (first)
Month-Year: 
Aug 2018
Description: 
GCF feedback/comments received on FP (first)
Month-Year: 
Mar 2020
Description: 
GCF feedback/comments received on FP (last)
Month-Year: 
Apr 2020
Description: 
Technical Advisory Panel feedback/comments received on FP
Month-Year: 
Aug 2020
Description: 
GCF Board Approval
Proj_PIMS_id: 
6057
SDGs: 
SDG 1 - No Poverty
SDG 8 - Decent Work and Economic Growth
SDG 13 - Climate Action
SDG 15 - Life On Land

Integrating Community-Based Adaptation into Afforestation and Reforestation Programs in Bangladesh

The project is working to transform the way greenbelt afforestation and reforestation programs in Bangladesh are designed and developed. It will ensure that new afforestation programs are made resilient to anticipated climate change risks through a combination of (a) planting of climate resilient mangrove and non-mangrove varieties, (b) adoption of new planting and management techniques by communities that take climate change risks into account; and (c) greater and continued community participation in the management and long-term protection of new greenbelt structures, in partnership with relevant sub-national government entities. 

The project website has additional details available here.

Source: Bangladesh Project Identification Form (November 23, 2011)

Undefined
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (91.8410436004 22.3310880215)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
Rural communities facing coastal erosion and salt water intrusion into vital agricultural lands.
Financing Amount: 
5,650,000 (as of February 25, 2010)
Co-Financing Total: 
41,619,000 (as of February 25, 2010)
Project Details: 

Through alignment with a substantive forestry project that is financed by the Government of Bangladesh, this LDCF-funded project will increase the resilience and adaptive value of ongoing government investments in vulnerable areas and communities. Besides the immediate vulnerability reduction benefits this LDCF project will generate, it will leverage additional public, bilateral and multilateral investments for community-based adaptation in the context of business-as-usual forestry activities

In line with LDCF eligibility criteria and guidelines, the project will use LDCF resources to finance the additional costs of achieving resilience against climate change risks of a government-funded baseline programme, which is not yet taking climate change resilience aspects into account. The proposed project is exclusively country-driven, well coordinated with a number of other LDCF- and non-LDCF-funded projects, and will integrate climate change risk considerations into areas that are priority interventions eligible under LDCF guidelines (especially coastal development and forest management). In alignment with LDCF guidelines, the project will 

  • Expand the resilience of natural and social systems against climate change hazards, focusing on the community level;
  • Enable the development of response strategies to reduce the adverse effects of sea level rise; 
  • Improve local and national awareness and understanding of the benefits of preparedness for climate change risks.

Although the project is undertaking community training activities in nursery management, it does not consider additional livelihood support and -diversification activities that could complement and sustain afforestation activities over the longer term. The persistent lack of alternative livelihood options and the pressures of poverty leave local communities with limited incentives to nurture and protect new greenbelt plantations: The ensuing effects of human and livestock encroachment result in a situation in which many afforested patches need to be repeatedly re-planted before they reach maturity to serve as protective shields.

The baseline project is therefore at risk of perpetuating this problem and doing 'more of the same': Its objective is to create and conserve coastal forests with community participation, but the lack of livelihood resilience and the pressures of poverty (which are in turn exacerbated by climate-related shocks such as seasonal flooding and tropical cyclones) create a situation in which the incentives for encroachment on new plantations keep outweighing the incentives to nurture them.

This can only be reversed if the planting of trees is coupled with targeted activities to strengthen and diversify livelihoods. If greenbelts are not perceived as an essential protective asset of rural livelihood systems, they will be used as a free economic resource that will continue to get replenished by the government. As the underlying baseline project does not make a systematic connection between forestry measures and complementary investments to sustain these new plantations through long-term community engagement, the proposed LDCF funding is clearly an additional measure to ensure that greenbelt forestry in Bangladesh can evolve from the business as usual scenario to a long-term model which generates adaptation benefits for future generations.

An additional factor that makes the aforementioned baseline project vulnerable to the effects of climate change is the continued use of monoculture practices: The BFD propagates the use of a single mangrove species (locally known as 'Keora"), which is suitable to trap sediment on newly accreted lands but keeps encountering a new set of climate change-related challenges: The temperature of coastal waters is rising (following global trends), and there is greater variability in inundation levels, inundation times, as well as salinity of soil and water. As a result, Keora plantations suffer from a higher rate of diseases and fail to regenerate naturally. Field assessments have found that at the maturity stage of 'business as usual' mangrove plantations (after 15 years), only 800 to 900 trees per hectare survive out of 4444 seedlings that had originally been planted. This represents a loss of up to 80% of planted trees and generates big gaps in greenbelt structures on moderately accreted lands, which need to be continuously re-planted.

There is an urgent necessity to fill these gaps with a more innovative mix of mangrove species that have vigorous regenerating abilities and increase the genetic diversity of these greenbelts. The proposed LDCF project will introduce a diversified set of 8-10 selected mangrove species in 4 coastal districts, in which this problem is most apparent. In doing so, LDCF resources will address an evident climate change-related problem in a baseline afforestation project: Without LDCF investments, the baseline project will not be able to sustain critical plant density per hectare, and buffer the effects of higher water temperatures, higher/longer tidal inundations, and shifting salinity levels.

At present, it is fair to say that without additional improvements in the functional design and community ownership of the above baseline project, the planting of trees in coastal belts does not qualify as a long-term adaptation and/or resilience measure. There are evident and substantive problems in establishing and sustaining new greenbelt structures as protective buffer zones from climate-induced stresses, which need to be addressed by additional activities, such as: a) Changing the mix of mangrove and non-mangrove species to increase  the natural adaptive capacity of coastal forests; b) Providing economic incentives for communities to nurture, protect and conserve newly planted greenbelt structures; and c) Developing long-term benefit sharing agreements between communities and the national government for the selective logging of economic tree varieties.

Source: Bangladesh Project Identification Form (November 23, 2011)

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
  • Outcome 1: Vulnerability of communities in new afforestation and reforestation sites reduced through diversified livelihood options and more effective greenbelts
    • Output 1.1: Community-based adaptation and livelihood diversification measures, such as integrated fish/fruit/forest-farming, diversified livestock rearing and salt tolerant/flood resistant crop farming are integrated with baseline afforestation and reforestation activities in 19 districts
    • Output 1.2: Diversified trial plantations of up to 10 mangrove and non-mangrove varieties are established in 4 districts to increase the adaptive capacity of greenbelt structures on newly accreted lands
  • Outcome 2: Strengthened community  involvement in, and ownership of, forestry-based adaptation and climate risk reduction programmes 
    • Output 2.1: Dialogue platforms established in all coastal districts to enable participative planning and management of climate resilient afforestation programmes between district, upazila and union officials and local communities
    • Output 2.2: A forest product benefit sharing agreement between coastal communities and national government is developed and adopted in at least 5 districts
    • Output 2.3: An institutional cooperation agreement and code of practice between community-based organizations and the Forest Department is developed and adopted to enable effective co-management of community-based adaptation and afforestation programmes
  • Outcome 3: Communal livelihood assets in afforestation and reforestation sites are protected from extreme climate events through effective early warning and preparedness planning
    • Output 3.1: Effective early warning communications for extreme climate events are regularly disseminated to communities in all afforestation and reforestation sites
    • Output 3.2: Communal livelihood assets in new afforestation and reforestation sites are protected from extreme climate events through dedicated disaster preparedness and risk reduction measures (such as flood-resistant agricultural plots; protection of aquaculture and freshwater supply infrastructure; safe havens for livestock) 

Source: Bangladesh Project Identification Form (November 23, 2011)

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Project Start:

Project Inception Workshop: will be held within the first 2 months of project start with those with assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and where appropriate/feasible regional technical policy and programme advisors as well as other stakeholders.  The Inception Workshop is crucial to building ownership for the project results and to plan the first year annual work plan. 

Daily:

Day to day monitoring of implementation progress: will be the responsibility of the Project Manager, based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators, with overall guidance from the Project Director. The Project Team will inform the UNDP-CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.

Quarterly:

Project Progress Reports (PPR): quarterly reports will be assembled based on the information recorded and monitored in the UNDP Enhanced Results Based Management Platform. Risk analysis will be logged and regularly updated in ATLAS.

Annually:

Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This key report is prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).  The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements.  

Periodic Monitoring through Site Visits: 

UNDP CO and the UNDP RCU will conduct visits to project sites based on the agreed schedule in the project's Inception Report/Annual Work Plan to assess first hand project progress.  Other members of the Project Board may also join these visits.  A Field Visit Report/BTOR will be prepared by the CO and UNDP RCU and will be circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team and Project Board members.

Mid-Term of Project Cycle:

Mid-Term Evaluation: will determine progress being made toward the achievement of outcomes and will identify course correction if needed.  It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons learned about project design, implementation and management.  Findings of this review will be incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project's term.  

End of Project:  

Final Evaluation: will take place three months prior to the final Project Board meeting and will be undertaken in accordance with UNDP and GEF guidance.  The final evaluation will focus on the delivery of the project’s results as initially planned (and as corrected after the mid-term evaluation, if any such correction took place).  The final evaluation will look at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the achievement of global environmental benefits/goals.  The Terminal Evaluation should also provide recommendations for follow-up activities.

Project Terminal Report: This comprehensive report will summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learned, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved.  It will also lie out recommendations for any further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the project's results.

Learning and Knowledge Sharing:

Results from the project will be disseminated within and beyond the project intervention zone through existing information sharing networks and forums. 

The project will identify and participate, as relevant and appropriate, in scientific, policy-based and/or any other networks, which may be of benefit to project implementation though lessons learned. The project will identify, analyze, and share lessons learned that might be beneficial in the design and implementation of similar future projects.

Establish a two-way flow of information between this project and other projects of a similar focus. 

Source: Bangladesh Project Identification Form (November 23, 2011)
Contacts: 
UNDP
Yusuke Taishi
Regional Technical Advisor
UNDP
Aminul Islam
Country Officer
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Project Status: 
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 
Project inception workshop: 22 March 2017
Project board meeting: 18 April 2017

 

1. Coastal Afforestation project receives Earth Care award 2012.

2. Coastal Afforestation project receives Adapting to Climate Change Award 2013.

3. National Workshop on Climate Resilient Adaptation Measures and Policy Recommendations organized by CBACC-Coastal Afforestation Project.

4. The project has achieved a new dimension: Anondo School.

News and Updates: 

'New project launched to reduce climate vulnerabilities of coastal communities' – UNDP Bangladesh, March 22, 2017. On March 22 in Dhaka the Minister for the Environment and Forests officially launched the four-year project, ‘Integrating Community-based Adaptation into Afforestation and Reforestation Programmes in Bangladesh’. An inception workshop – attended by the Deputy Minister, Ministry of Environment and Forests; the Secretary in Charge of the Ministry of Environment and Forests; UNDP’s Deputy Country Director and Additional Secretary, and the National Project Director – marked the launch.

 

Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 


Civil Society Engagement: 


Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change (PACC)

The Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change (PACC) Programme is the first major climate change adaptation initiative in the Pacific region.

Through the PACC programme United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) are working to reduce climate vulnerability and promote more resilient Pacific communities that are able to cope with climate variability today and climate change tomorrow.

Working in 14 Pacific island countries, PACC is demonstrating best-practice adaptation in three key climate-sensitive areas: coastal zone management, food security and food production, and water resources management.

  • Fiji, Palau, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands focus on Food Production and Food Security
  • Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Samoa and Vanuatu are developing Coastal Management capacity;
  • and Nauru, Niue,Republic of Marshall Islands, Tokelau, Tonga and Tuvalu are looking to strengthen their Water Resource Management.

The PACC Programme is a partnership between several key regional agencies and national agencies and communities in 14 Pacific island countries. It is funded by the Global Environment Facility's (GEF) Special Climate Change Fund and the Australian Government, with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as its implementing agency and the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) as implementing partner. The Project is supported by the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) C3D+programme.

Undefined
Photos: 
Level of Intervention: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POINT (178.48388671163 -18.140631707954), POINT (178.41796874288 -18.098865706535), POINT (178.41796874288 -18.077978972275), POINT (178.35205077413 -18.119749952586), POINT (178.35205077413 -18.119749952586), POINT (178.46191405538 -18.140631707954))
Funding Source: 
Newsletter
Brochures, Posters, Communications Products
Communications Products
Annual Reports
Document
Board Meeting Reports
ProDocs
Assessments and Background Documents
Project Brief / Fact Sheet

Climate Change in the Pacific: FOOD

The world over, agriculture faces an unprecedented threat from climate change. Agriculture on small islands faces additional and unique challenges.

The fertile coastal plains, where farming is often concentrated, are also in the front line for sea level rise and coastal erosion. As the sea encroaches, soils are becoming salty and waterlogged. On very small islands, and especially low-lying atolls, moving farms further inland is not an option. On larger islands, moving inland and uphill often means destroying forests, with environmental consequences that add to the problem.

PACC Tokelau: Vital Health

The Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change (PACC) project is working in Tokelau to improve access to clean water at the household and community level. These efforts are working to help communities adapt to their changing climate, and to improve the health of the people in Tokelau, PACC has installed First Flush Diverters on 99% of households in all three of Tokelau's atolls. This ensures that contaminants from the roofs do not enter the drinking water tanks.
 

PACC Cook Islands: Vital Harbour

This PACC project in the Cook Islands is climate proofing Mangaia Harbour, and protecting the island’s coastline.

The project focuses on coastal management on Mangaia Island. The badly damaged harbour at Mangaia harbour – the transportation hub and entry point for all supplies to the island – was destroyed by tropical cyclones in early 2005. The project intervention was to develop a stronger and safer harbour that can withstand current and future climate-related threats.

Vital Programme: Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change (PACC)

The Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change (PACC) project is funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Australian Government (AusAID), with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as its implementing agency and the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) as implementing partner.

The PACC Project is working in Pacific Island countries to promote climate change adaptation in key development sectors. The 3 sectors are: 1) food production and food security, 2) coastal management and 3) water resource management.

Project Details: 

The Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change (PACC) project is funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Australian Government (AusAID), with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as its implementing agency and the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) as implementing partner. The project duration is scheduled from 2009 to 2014.

Uniquely diverse and fragile, Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICT) are aware that adapting to current and anticipated climate changes is crucial to achieving sustainable development. Cognizant of this need, the objective of the PACC project is to enhance the capacity of participating countries to adapt to climate change in key development sectors: food production and food security, coastal management and water resource management. Supporting improvements in these sectors the PACC project is working to build resilience to climate change in PICT. Adaptation projects are now being implemented nationally, after an intensive consultative process with the implementing agencies and government counterparts.

Under the project, Fiji, Palau, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands are focussing on food production and food security. The Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Samoa, Tokelau and Vanuatu are developing coastal management capacity and Nauru, Niue, Republic of Marshall Islands, Tonga and Tuvalu are working to strengthen their water resource management.

More specifically, the project is working to deliver outcomes and outputs that include improved technical capacity to formulate and implement national and sub-national policies, legislation, and costing/assessment exercises. Climate change risks will be incorporated into relevant governance policies and strategies for achieving food security, water management, and coastal development.

At the sub-national level, pilot demonstration activities will deliver adaptation benefits in the form of practical experiences in the planning and implementation of response measures that reduce vulnerability. These benefits will be integral for future replication and up-scaling, and also to identify larger-scale investment opportunities from multilateral banks supporting countries with climate change adaptation. The project will also foster regional collaboration on adaptation.

Concrete adaptation measures being pursued through PACC

Climate induced disturbances in water supplied is being reduced by increasing the availability and quality of freshwater through integrated measures involving

  • capturing and storage of rain and groundwater resources (individual household and community storage capacities) – Tuvalu, Tonga, Nauru, PNG, RMI, Tokelau
  • reducing leakage of reticulated systems and water storage facilities – Tonga, Tuvalu, RMI, Tokelau
  • water saving (e.g. introducing compost toilets, demand management through awareness raising) – Tuvalu, Tonga
  • water purifiers (using solar heat) - Nauru

Climate-induced disturbances in food supply and security is being reduced through:

  • Induction of climate resilient crop species and varieties (resilient to drought, water clogging, salt water intrusion, pests), including techniques for their consistent supply (germ-plasm collections, nurseries) – Solomon Islands, Palau, Fiji, PNG
  • Enhanced farming and land use techniques facilitating soil and water conservation (e.g. mulching, organic farming, mixed cropping, drainage), – Solomon Islands, Palau, Fiji,
  • Enhanced food storage and processing techniques – Solomon Islands, Palau
  • Enhanced aquaculture techniques - Palau

Climate-induced degradation and erosion of coastal areas and infrastructure is being reduced through a combination of hard and soft measures:

  • Protective coastal structures – Samoa, Vanuatu
  • Coastal vegetation – Samoa, Vanuatu
  • Reinforcing existing coastal infrastructure (climate proofing of roads and harbours) – Federated States of Micronesia, Vanuatu, Cook Islands
  • Relocating coastal infrastructure to less-exposed areas (Vanuatu – landing strip, road sections)
  • Coastal resource use changes (e.g. reducing sand-mining by local communities, conserving reefs and coastal wetlands and forests as natural protection barrier) - Samoa

The results and lessons from each of the 14 PACC projects will be shared regionally and globally, and bring together new knowledge generated through the project as the basis for a strategic and regional approach to climate change adaptation among Pacific Island states.     

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Outcome I: Mainstreaming

The first of the PACC outcomes is devoted to mainstreaming. The PACC approach to mainstreaming has a dual purpose: 1) to strengthen the ability of institutional frameworks, policies and plans to take climate change risks into consideration and 2) to improve the capacity of key national government and community decision-makers to integrate adaptation measures in key decisions.

Outcome II: Pilot Demonstration

To design and demonstrate innovative decision systems, approaches, technologies and practical measures to strengthen the resilience of 14 Pacific Islands to the adverse effects of climate change. The PACC will develop specific guidelines in the coastal zone management, food production and food security, and water resource management sectors on how climate change assessments and demonstrations can be undertaken, taking current and future changes in climate into consideration. This outcome includes two outputs:

  1. Vulnerability Assessments, identification and evaluation of adaptation options;
  2. Implementation and monitoring of the selected measures.

Outcome III: Technical Support and Communication

This outcome is to ensure that results and lessons from the PACC project are shared regionally and globally. And provide the medium to bring together new knowledge generated through the project as the basis for a strategic regional approach to climate change adaptation among Pacific Island Countries and Territories.

Key Results

  1. National adaptive capacity developed
  2. Community vulnerability to climate change reduced
  3. Technical assistance & Regional Cooperation

Outputs

  • 1.1 Technical capacity of key decision makers developed
  • 1.2 Institutional coordination mechanisms established
  • 1.3 Tools to assess economic costs of adaptation developed and utilized
  • 1.4 Legislative and policy directives prepared and adopted